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I 





UNIMPRE0NATED FEMALE FORM. 



T H E 

BOOK OF NATURE; 

CONTAINING 

INFORMATION FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 

WHO THINK OF 

GETTING MARRIED, 

ON THE 

PHILOSOPHY OF PROCREATION 

AN J) 

SEXUAL INTERCOURSE; 

SHOWING 

HOW TO PREVENT CONCEPTION 

AND TO 

AVOID CHILD-BEARING. 

ALSO, RULES FOR 
MANAGEMENT DURING^LABOR AND CHILD-BIRTH. 



BY JAMES ASHTON, M. D. 

Lecturer on Sexual Physiology, and Inventor of the "Reveil Nocturne.' 



NEW YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY WALLIS & ASHTON, 243 GRAND STREET. 

1861. 



INDEX TO CONTENTS. 



Abortions and Miscarriages 61 

Abortions, how produced 62-63 

Aphrodisiacs 63 

Child-getting, how to avoid 38 

Clitoris, the 19 

Conception, modes of preventing. 38 

Conception, signs of 55 

Conception, how to avoid 25 

Coverings for the Penis 41 

Drugs to destroy the Semen.. 12-40 

Ergot of Rye 62-64 

Fallopian Tubes 15 

Female Generative Organs. ..13-14 

Female Private Parts 18 

Foetus, development of the 31 

Foetus, size and position of 33 

Hymen, the 17 

Impregnation 24 

Impregnation, manner of 26 

Intellect, how formed 48 

Labor and Child-birth 55 to 60 

Longevity, causes of 53 

Love Powders 63 

Male Generative Organs 5 

Management at difficult Births. ..60 

Marriage, natural laws of 50 

Miscarriages 61 

Nymphomania 27 

Orgasms of a Female 35 

Ovaries of a Female 13 



Ova, expulsion of the 14 

Ovum, or Egg 13 

Penis, the 7 

Penis, malformations of the 8 

Pregnancy, how to detect 54 

Semen, the 10 

Semen, animalcules of the 11 

Sexual Abuses 44 

Sexual Desires 20 

Sexual Enjoyment of Females. . .34 

Sexual Feeling in Females 35 

Sexual Indulgence 33*. 

Sexual Indulgence, time for 36 

Sexual Intercourse, too early 42 

Sexual Intercourse, too frequent 22 
Sexual Intercourse, enjoyment of 36 
Sexual Intercourse, position at. - -46 
Sexual Organs, Food to stimulate 37 

Sexual Union 21-22 

Sex of a Child, how determined. .28 

Testes, the 6 

Temperaments, laws of the 50 

Unborn Child, growth of the 32 

Unborn Child, intellect of 48 

Uterus, or Womb 16 

Vagina, the 16 

Vital Force, influence of 52 

Wife, choice of a 48 

Why Children look like Parents 30 
Zoospermes 10 



ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS in the year 1859 
by Benjamin H. Day, in the Clerk's Office of the United States 
District Court for the Southern District of New York. 



PREFACE. 



Within the past few years, numerous physiological 
books have been compiled and printed, ostensibly for popu- 
lar reading and to impart certain information which could 
not be obtained except from very expensive medical works. 
On examination, nearly the whole of them prove to be the 
productions of persons calling themselves physicians, and 
issued as a medium of advertising their medicines, or their 
peculiar practice. In most of these books, facts in physiology 
are so mixed up with empirical self-laudations, absurd rea- 
sonings, useless repetitions, and fabulous cases in point, as 
to become not only intensely tedious, but in a measure dis- 
gusting to the reader. 

The Prevention of Conception appears to be one of the 
main features of these publications, and each author pro- 
fesses to have a secret plan of his own for that purpose, 
which he offers to impart for a professional fee of five dol- 
lars. An offer like this to intelligent people is understood 
as arrant quackery ; but there are such a vast number of 
married persons who desire to limit the number of their 
offspring, that many will send their money in sheer despe- 
ration, and with little or no hope of success. 

As the writer of this treatise does not propose to* offer 
his professional services to his readers, and as even the 
copy-right of it is disposed of in advance, he will endeavor 
to present, briefly and impartially, the prominent facts 
which modern science has demonstrated in the phenomena 
of procreation, the conception and production of offspring, 
and the various safe and harmless methods that may be 
resorted to by married people to prevent child-bearing. 
All that is known on these interesting and important sub- 



IV PREFACE. 

jects is given in plain language, and with but few medical 
terms. In collecting this information, the writer has ex- 
amined all the different modes ever recommended, discov- 
ered or invented, for the prevention of conception, whether 
alleged to be secret or otherwise. Some of them were 
found to be utterly worthless ; others may, in most cases, 
be employed successfully by extreme caution and pains- 
taking, while not more than two or three are perfectly reli- 
able. These last are subject to failure, only from prejudice 
or want of energy ; and if adopted with moderate caution, 
will be successful. In these discoveries the French phy- 
sicians appear to be the most ingenious, and some of the 
plans given are consequently of French origin. 

The Physiology of Generation, which comprises ail medi- 
cal knowledge relative to the reproduction of offspring, is> 
a subject of intense interest to the adult portion of man^ 
kind. It has been zealously investigated by learned men 
of all ages — physicians, philosophers and theologians — 
and numerous conflicting theories have been advanced, 
books written, and ideas inculcated, which have presented 
the subject in various phases for popular reading. One 
class denounces all attempts to prevent conception and 
child-bearing as immoral, unnatural, and hurtful to health, 
while others hold more liberal views, and consider that 
married people have a perfect right to decide for them- 
selves whether they shall breed a family or not. The 
writer takes no part in these arguments. He is content to 
impart to his readers, in a brief and matter-of-fact form, 
reliable physiological information which could only be ob- 
tained by long study from other sources. With this ex- 
planation, he trusts that the object of his little treatise 
will be appreciated by the public. 



THE BOOK OF NATURE. 



MAKE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 

The Generative Organs of man consists of two distinct 
outward members, called the Penis and the Testes, or 
Testicles — both together being frequently called the Geni- 
tals. The Testes are inclosed in a sac or bag hanging from 
the pubic bone called the Scrotum, and their functions are 
to produce the male principle or Semen, as the Ovaries in 
the female ripen the Ovum or Egg. The Testes are a 
curious work of Nature. On dissection they are found to 
be composed of fine blood vessels intermingled with small 
tubes called the Seminal Tubes, in which the Semen is 
generated. Some very knowing physicians say that there 
are sixty thousand of these Seminal Tubes ; but we doubt 
if anybody ever counted them. These tubes, as they leave 
the Testes, gradually join together until finally a single 
tube only goes from each Testicle. These are called the 
Vas Deferens, and they ascend to the abdomen through a 
larger tube, (which also contains arteries, nerves, lympha- 
tics, &c.,) where they connect with two small organs called 
Seminal Vesicles. From these vesicles the Semen passes 
downwards through a tube called the Ejaculatory Canal, 
which is connected with the Prostate Gland, and from 
whence it is forced to the Urethra or urinal passage, and 
so out of the body. This is a brief outline of all the or- 
gans connected with the generative system of man : the 
Testes have the peculiar property of making the Semen — 
the Vas Deferens and the Ejaculatory Canal carry it into 
the abdomen to the Prostate Gland, from whence it is con- 
veyed, by a peculiar but spasmodic effort, through the uri- 
nal passage in the Penis into the body of the female. It 
is supposed that the Seminal Vesicles and Prostate Gland 
impart a vital principle to the Semen, and that the peculiar 



6 MALE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 

pleasurable feeling experienced during connection with the 
female springs from these organs. 

The Scrotum, in a healthy state, is contracted so as to 
draw its skin into folds and keep the Testes close to the 
body. But when a person is in ill health, or greatly fa- 
tigued, the skin relaxes and the two Testes hang low, the 
Scrotum being then supported in the middle by a mem- 
brane or cord called the Septum Scroti, which acts as a 
sort of partition. The Scrotum of old men is permanently 
relaxed in this manner ; but in children it is a sure indica- 
tion of ill health. 

The size of the Testes vary in different persons. The 
average of mankind have them each about the bigness of 
a pigeon's egg ; but sometimes they are larger. It seldom 
makes any difference in the actual power of procreation 
whether these organs are large or small, though persons 
with large Testes can generally perform the act of copula- 
tion oftener, and with less exhaustion. A man with large 
Testes generally has a large Penis, as the size of the one 
usually governs the growth of the other ; but it is by no 
means certain that sexual connection thereby affords him 
any more pleasure. Such men should marry with great 
caution. Many females are incapable of affording them 
pleasure from the comparative smallness of their private 
parts ; and they suffer much pain and ill health from such 
intercourse. On the contrary, men whose genital organs 
are not fully developed, though they may impregnate, yet 
they cannot always give full satisfaction to the female. If 
it could so be that people about to marry were properly 
matched in their private parts, it would prevent a great 
deal of unhappiness in the world. 

Some curious cases are reported in the books of ill- 
matched couples in this respect. One of the Princes of 
the Royal Family of England (a son of George III.) died 
without legitimate issue because he could not have con- 
nection with his wife — she being too small, or he being too 




Explanation of the Engraving. 



. Vas Deferens, or Tube which conveys 






s The Scrotum. 
9. The Penis. 
ID. The Glaus, or head of the Penis. 

1 1. Yas Deferens — detached views. 

12. Right Seminal Veaicli — interior cell-. 
I(; V.I. Left Seminal Yesich — detached nuNi. 



*y 3 Vesicles and Va 8 Deferens being h 

i ^^ side of it. 



MALE PRIVATE PARTS EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL. 



CONSTRUCTION OF THE PENIS. 7 

large for the purpose. It is true, he was entitled to a di- 
vorce by law, but it was said he respected his wife too 
much to resort to such a measure. Another curious case 
was that of Baron Brunner, whose wife claimed a divorce 
on the ground that her husband was a sort of eunuch, who 
could afford her no pleasure during connection. But in 
this case, as Madame was the mother of a daughter, to 
whom she dared not deny the paternity of the Baron, her 
petition was rejected. 

The Penis is the principal generative organ of man. It 
is usually from live to seven inches in length, hanging pen- 
dant, and extending from the Pelvic Bones to the glans at 
the end, and is divided into two parts called the Caverno- 
sum and the Spongiosum. There is a groove underneath 
and between these two parts, through which runs the 
Urethra, or urinal passage. The head of the Penis is called 
the Bulb, and is of a spongy nature, being filled with little 
cells or cavities communicating with each other, and which 
extend into blood vessels which run the whole length of 
the organ, and are finally connected with an artery and a 
vein in the body. When no excitement of the part exists, 
these cells and blood vessels are nearly empty ; but when 
excited by sexual desires, they rapidly fill with blood, when 
the Penis stands erect and enlarges to one-third greater 
size. The erection is also assisted by a number of muscles 
which only act when the blood rushes into the part. These 
are called the Cavernosus Muscles. In some persons the 
erection is very sudden, while in others it is the reverse — 
all depending upon the temperament and construction of 
the parts. The time for the erection to subside is also dif- 
ferent in different persons. The causes of this difference 
depend upon certain vital actions of the blood vessels not 
fully understood. In old age this organ will often become 
hard and erect, though it requires more time, and the erec- 
tion subsides almost instantly after connection with a fe- 
male. The Penis is often destroyed by accident or by dis- 



8 MALE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 

ease, and sometimes it is naturally deformed. A case is 
stated by Dr. Rollick of a young man 19 years old, whose 
Penis was only a quarter of an inch long ! By a protracted 
and careful course of treatment, however, it was made to 
grow several inches. Some male children have been born 
with no Penis at all — a slight swelling, like the top of a 
small tumor, being the only mark of the spot where it 
ought to have grown. In some cases of deformity like 
this, men have been known to beget children, the flow of 
Semen being ample ; and it only requiring, for the purpose 
of impregnation, that the Semen shall be placed within 
the external lips of the private parts of the female, as will 
be shown hereafter. 

There are frequent malformations of the Penis. Some- 
times it will grow in such a way that, when erect, it turns 
one side or the other, so that association is painful and 
very difficult. This is generally caused by contraction of 
the skin or muscles, and is very easily remedied by care- 
fully cutting them in the proper place. Sometimes a one- 
sided Penis is the result of aneurism, swelling of the veins, 
or unnatural erections. These causes generally form tu- 
mors, which must first be reduced before a proper action 
can be restored. Cold astringent lotions, used constantly, 
will generally cure these tumors, though it is sometimes 
necessary to bind some smooth, hard substance firmly on 
to them — a piece of horn or ivory being the most suitable. 
Frequently the cord at the end of the Penis, which binds 
the prepuce, will be so short as to pull down the end of 
the Glans and thus prevent a proper connection with the 
female. This cord, when too short, will often break ; but 
the best way is to cut it carefully either with a sharp knife 
or a pair of scissors. A Penis with a head too large is a 
malformation caused by boyish pranks in handling the 
organ during its growth. 

The causes of a non-development of the Penis are va- 
rious. Sometimes a general torpor of the Testes retards 



NON-DEVELOPMENT OF THE PENIS. 9 

its growth. Disease or excess will frequently make it 
wither and decrease in size ; and many a youth by early 
masturbation prevents the full development of the organ. 
Injuries to the Testes, during early childhood, will often 
stop the growth of the Penis. The Mumps, Scarlet Fever, 
Measles, Rickets, and Scrofula — each of these diseases will 
also more or less affect its perfect development. It is 
nearly impossible to prescribe a remedy for this evil, as 
much depends upon the temperament of the person affect- 
ed. In persons of little sexual feeling, I would recom- 
mend a' rational and moderate use of the organ as Nature 
intended. The healthy excitement thus produced will tend 
to its growth. In some men, however, this plan would 
rather do harm than good — a frequent tepid bath, with 
brisk rubbing of the muscles, being the proper treatment. 
A stimulating ointment of some kind might be used to ad- 
vantage with this latter treatment. A tube to fit over the 
Penis, with an air-pump, is frequently used by physicians 
in connection with a shampooing of the muscles, and in 
some cases this acts beautifully. 

The lascivious practices of boys, who learn of one ano- 
ther the habit of onanism — their too early connection with 
females — these and other habits affect the growth and full 
development of the Penis. 

The Penis should be fully developed in a boy fourteen 
or fifteen years old. At that age the seminal fluid, des- 
tined for the perpetuation of the species, begins to be 
secreted by the Testicles, and not only excites the sexual 
organs, but affects every part of the body. The power of 
the mind, too, is improved ; the digestion becomes more 
vigorous ; the circulation of the blood is more rapid ; in- 
deed, every organ is abundantly nourished by it, and they 
perform their functions with much more energy than be- 
fore this period of life. But the sexual organs, notwith- 
standing they may be of full size, have not yet matured, as 
will be shown hereafter. 



10 ANIMALCULE OF THE SEMEN. 

THE SEMEN. 

The Semen is a yellowish- white liquid substance secreted 
in the Testes of the Male, and which contains the animal- 
cule that grow to be future human beings. A microscopic 
examination shows it to consist of two substances, one 
fluid and the other little white globules. These globules 
soon dissolve when exposed to the air. The composition 
of the Semen is nine-tenths water — the remaining tenth 
being 10 soda, 30 phosphate of lime, and 60 animal muci- 
lage containing a peculiar principle which is unknown. 
The living aninialculse of the Semen can be plainly seen 
with a microscope. They look like little eels with large 
heads, or pollywogs, and are supposed to be the germ of 
the brain and spine. They are called Zoospermes, and the 
microscope enables us to study their habits, and describe 
them with correctness. These animalculse first grow in the 
little globules or eggs. Their extreme smallness may be 
imagined when we state that one of these globules, which 
are not visible to the naked eye, but can be seen only with 
a microscope, contains thirty of them. After the globules 
break open, the Zoospermes grow and become developed 
before they are in a fit state to enter the female Ovum. 
Attached to their head is a sort of sucker which fastens 
itself on to anything it can take hold of. By the aid of 
the microscope we are enabled to study the habits of these 
animalculse so closely that it is known they cast their skins 
as they grow larger, like some insects. A French physi- 
ologist writes that he easily distinguishes their sex, male 
and female, but we doubt the truth of his assertion. They 
are apparently very playful and active, but it appears to be 
their nature to move only in one direction, and that straight 
forward — which movement has a connection with impreg- 
nation that is explained elsewhere in these pages. In 
watching the motions of these curious little creatures, we 
find that combats frequently occur among them. They 




4- \ ^151 -" 




^ 



1. Zoosperme magnified. 2. Highly magnified. 

3. Undeveloped Zoospermes in the Semen. 

4. Female Ovum burst open for impregnation. 

5. Zoospermes darting in to impregnate the Ovum. 



ZOOSPERMES. 1 1 

fight very fiercely, and sometimes the fight lasts until only 
one or two out of a dozen or more are left alive, showing 
a pugnacity of disposition peculiar to mankind in the pri- 
mitive or half-civilized state. They will live for several 
hours in warm water, and it is thus that their manoeuvres 
are more easily seen. The Semen of a boy, before puberty, 
contains no Zoospermes ; and hence females of amorous 
propensities have indulged with them without becoming 
impregnated. Diseases of a certain character, and also 
some kinds of drugs, will destroy the vitality of the Semen. 

The animalculae of the Semen are not developed in the 
Testes. While there, it contains only the granules, which 
ripen as they proceed, and it is not until they reach the 
Prostate Gland that they burst open. It is therefore neces- 
sary to a healthy connection, that some time should elapse 
between the acts of coition. It frequently happens, when 
people first marry, that months will pass before impregna- 
tion takes place. This is because of too frequent connec- 
tion. The Semen does not have time to be fully developed 
on its passage from the Testes. 

We have stated that it is a habit of the Zoospermes to 
move only in one direction, and that straight forward. It 
is this peculiarity which enables them to make their way 
up into the Womb, even from the Labia or external lips 
of the female. It is found, also, that Zoospermes will live 
twenty-four hours in the private parts of the female, during 
which time she may become impregnated by them. It 
seems to be of little consequence Iwm Semen is deposited 
in the female organ. Conception may take place, even 
without sexual connection, if the Semen is fresh from the 
male, and healthy. The sexual feeling of the female, though 
it may conduce certain favorable conditions of the part, and 
thus promote the result, is not, in most cases, necessary. 

The celebrated John Hunter reported the case of a pa- 
tient of his who had entirely lost his penis by syphilis. It 
was sloughed off half an inch into his body. Yet this man 



12 DRUGS THAT WILL DESTROY THE SEMEN. 

could eject his semen from the orifice; and he married af- 
ter his misfortune, and became the father of a child. His 
wife was impregnated by means of a small glass syringe, 
with which the semen was injected into the proper place. 

The Parisian doctors make preparations of various drugs 
to destroy the animalculaB of the Semen, and thus prevent 
conception. This plan, if thoroughly adopted, produces 
the desired effect, as will be shown hereafter. Iodine, 
Strychnine, Prussic Acid, or even Opium, will instantly 
kill the Zoospermes. Alcohol will likewise generally de- 
stroy them, or render them powerless until they die. An 
electric shock kills them instantly, and so will cold water, 
in very many cases, though not always. 

Modern science enables us to speak with certainty rela- 
tive to a cause of childless couples, which is a want of vi- 
tality of the Semen. Formerly it was supposed that bar- 
renness was a peculiarity of women alone ; but it is now 
known that the fault is more frequently in the husband. 
The Semen of these barren men contains the usual glo- 
bules, which never ripen or come to maturity. Such men 
may experience a certain degree of pleasure in connection, 
but they cannot become fathers. The Semen is undevel- 
oped, like that of a boy of ten years. The sexual desires 
of such men are never very strong, and quickly subside ; 
nor can they excite the female to any great degree of ardor. 
Long continued excesses in venery, whether with women 
or by means of onanism, is a frequent cause of barrenness 
or impotence in men. In these cases the Semen loses its 
prolific power. Frequently this impotence cannot be rem- 
edied, though I have cured many persons of it who had 
daily involuntary emissions of the spermatic fluid without 
erections or amorous impulse. The treatment consists in 
avoiding its causes, restoring the general health by proper 
diet an,d exercise, and in invigorating the affected organs 
by the internal and external use of such remedies as have 
a direct influence upon them. 



FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 13 

THE OVARIES. 

The Ovaries, or egg-vessels of a human female, are two 
bodies situated on each side of the Pelvis just within the 
lower edge of the hip bone. They vary in size, averaging 
about the same as the male testicle, but of a different shape, 
being flat and oblong, like an almond. When in a healthy 
state, they are of pale red color, and have a rough exte- 
rior. Every Ovary consists of a large number of cells 
about the size of a buck-shot, called the Graafian Vesicles, 
and which contain a transparent fluid. On looking at this 
fluid with a glass, the Ovum, or germ of the human being, 
can be plainly seen in each cell. It is very small — not 
much larger than a grain of sand. A healthy and perfectly 
formed female has some thirty or more of these vesicles. 
It is impossible to tell the exact number, because all of 
them are not fully developed at the same time. In fact, 
they ripen and become perfect in succession, from month to 
month, and one is expelled at each menstrual flow, as de- 
scribed below, beginning at the age of puberty, and so con- 
tinuing until the turn of life, when all have been expelled 
and the Ovaries then become barren. The Ovum generally 
comes from each side alternately — the right ovary expelling 
its egg one month, and the left the next, and so on. But 
where disease or any cause has disabled one Ovary, the 
other one, if healthy, expels its egg monthly. Such are 
the curious workings of Nature. 

When an Ovum, or egg^ is fully developed, it leaves the 
Ovary, and passing through a very curious hollow ligature 
called the Fallopian Tube, is thus conveyed into the Womb. 
This occurs once in four weeks in a healthy female. In 
order to detach this ripe egg from the Ovary, real inflam- 
mation is experienced, which causes a discharge of blood 
and mucus, called the menstrual or monthly flow. This 
constant action of the Ovaries has a most extraordinary 
influence upon the whole being of woman. It not only 



14 FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 

absorbs a large portion of her nervous power, but it actu- 
ally affects her mind to a considerable extent. It is the 
principal cause of hysteria, fickleness, gayety, peevishness, 
and other eccentricities peculiar to female character. 

The Ovum usually reaches the Womb from one to two 
cays after the monthly flow ceases. After being retained 
a certain time by a thin membrane called the Decidua, the 
membrane loosens and passes out of the body, taking the 
Ovum along with it. While it remains in the Womb, it is 
of course liable to be impregnated by the semen from the 
male ; but the moment it is expelled, no impregnation can 
take place until another monthly flow. Many French fe- 
males, who have studied this subject closely and attentively, 
are enabled to tell with certainty when the Ovum leaves 
them, and they avoid contact with the other sex except 
during the interval between its expulsion and their next 
monthly turn. In this way they avoid child-bearing. 

The usual healthy time during which the Ovum remains 
in the Womb, is fourteen days. In some females it remains 
as long as sixteen or seventeen days. Cases of supposed 
barrenness are frequently those where the ova are expelled 
from the womb very soon after lodging there. It is then 
necessary for the husband, if he desires children, to cohabit 
with his wife immediately after the menstrual flow ceases. 
On the contrary, those who would avoid having offspring, 
(unless they use the means pointed out in another part of 
this book,) should refrain from sexual indulgence until the 
Ovum has been expelled, which is generally the third week 
after the menstrual flow has ceased 

By a curious provision of Nature, the blood and vital 
energy required to ripen and expel the monthly Ovum in 
a female, is turned in another channel during pregnancy, 
and tends to secrete the milk and the fluids on which the 
growing foetus subsists. Thus the ova lie dormant during 
that period, and they seldom begin to ripen again until the 
new-born infant is weaned 




Explanation of the Engraving. 



1. The Clitoris. 

2. The Outer and the Inner Lips of the 
Private Parts. 

3. Meatus Urinarhis, and Mouth of the 
Bladder. 

4. The Vagina, or Passage towards the 
Womb. 

5. Mouth of the Womb. 
, 6. Thick Walls of the Womb. 
I 7. The Rectum. 

I 8. The Bladder. 

I 9. Pubic Bone. 

10. Right Ovary and Fallopian Tube. 



FEMALE ORGANS CUT IX HALF SECTION OF INTERNALS. 



Explanation of the Engraving 

1. The Clitoris. 

2. Right Outer Lip 

3. Right Inner Lip. 

4. Entrance to the Vagina, or Pasnage 
towards the Womb. 

5. Urinary Passage, or Mouth of Bladder. - 

6. Intestine of the Rectum. 

7. Covering, or Wall of the Vagina. 

8. The Bladder. 

9. Covering of the Womb 

10. The Ovaries, showing their connection 
with the Womb by the Fallopian Tubes. 

LI. The Abdoiueu 




FEMALE ORGANS OF JJEPRODITTION AS THEY LIE IN THE BODY 



THE FALLOPIAN TUBES. 15 

it will be understood, from the foregoing facts, that no 
female can produce more than a certain number of ova. 
When all are exhausted, the turn of life takes place. It is, 
therefore, desirable that girls should not become sexually 
excited before the full age of puberty, as such excitement 
is sure to hasten that period. The sooner they begin to 
menstruate, the sooner they become old women. In the 
same way maiden ladies usually reach the turn of life 
sooner than child-bearing women. 

In some women, the Ovaries being originally weak, or 
diseased, they are irregular in their menstrual periods, or 
have frequent flooding from the debilitated state of the 
organs. Deformity of children is supposed to arise from 
imperfect ova, and want of sufficient vital force to fully de- 
velop them. The ripening of the Ovum, or egg^ is in many 
respects like unto the ripening of an apple on the tree. 
Some are perfect and beautiful, while others are deformed 
and ungainly in appearance. 

The two Fallopian Tubes, which connect the ovaries 
with the Womb, are very curious. They are hollow liga- 
ments, a little larger at one end than the other. On dis- 
section they are found to be lined with fine thread-like 
points, which point towards the smallest end of the tube, 
adjoining the Womb. These points are in perpetual mo- 
tion, like small worms, and this operation is what causes 
the egg to pass through the tube. For the same reason 
nothing can go back in these tubes from the Womb to the 
Ovaries. These tubes also afford a passage for the secre- 
tions and fluids, which would otherwise accumulate in tho 
Ovaries of women in ill health. A considerable portion 
of the discharges from the Vagina, to which some females 
are subject, come from the Ovaries through the Fallopian 
Tubes into the Womb, and thence to the lower passage. 
Sexual or amative feeling on the part of the female affects 
these tubes, by causing them to straighten and relax, thus 
working the points on the inner surface, and hastening the 



16 FEMALE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 

passage of the Ovum, should one be in the passage. This 
feeling also hastens the ripening of the Ovum, to a certain 
extent. The usual length of the Fallopian Tubes is from 
three to four inches. A woman may be made perfectly 
barren by tying ligatures round these two tubes, an opera- 
tion which would be attended with but little pain. It is 
obvious, however, that her health might seriously suffer in 
consequence. In France, animals are frequently served in 
. this manner in preference to the painful process of spaying. 
The Uterus, or Womb, is suspended mid-way between 
the lower edges of the hip-bones. Its upper part goes up 
between the bladder and the rectum, and lies upon the 
bladder. Its lower part joins the passage called the Va- 
gina, which is usually about four or live inches in length. 
In fact, the neck of the Womb hangs down into the Va- 
gina, and is the cause of an indescribable delightful feeling 
on the part of the female when in connection with the 
male. Many women say that they experience very little 
sexual feeling, and that the act of copulation is to them a 
matter of indifference. C This is because the mouth of the 
Womb is not reached or touched by the glans of the male 
organ ; and the pleasurable sensation of the female is then 
confined to a slight irritation of the Clitoris and Nymphae, 
in the private parts. \ When the amorous sensations of the 
female are excited during connection, the Yv r omb becomes 
engorged with blood, and moves up and down in the Va- 
gina, bringing the neck in contact with the glans of the 
male organ, and this contact, if not too violent, is the per- 
fection of sexual indulgence for both parties. 

The Vagina is a curved passage from the Womb to the 
lower private parts of the female called the Vulva. It is 
a tubular passage, the diameter of which varies from one 
and a half to two inches, and is usually from four to five 
inches in length. This curved tube possesses some curious 
powers, which are in action only during connection with 
the male. It is lined with a mucus membrane throughout, 



TEE HYMEK". 17 

and underneath is thick cellular membrane which is spongy 
and tills with blood during sexual excitement, the same as 
the head of the penis in the male. This is the erectile tis- 
sue. On each side are certain little openings where are 
secreted a thickish gray fluid of a peculiar smell, which is 
discharged copiously during connection. Some uninformed 
persons erroneously think this to be a kind of Semen ; but 
it is merely a fluid provided by Nature to assist in the nup- 
tial act. Some females have the erectile tissue imperfectly 
developed, and for this reason are liable to a lax-vagina^ 
which leads to a falling of the Womb, and other diseases 
that render the marriage state necessary to restore them to 
health. Mothers are apt to attach too little importance to 
this disease. 

The entrance to the Vagina, a small oval opening, easily 
seen by parting the lips of the private parts, is usually 
closed in virgins by a thin membrane, or skin, which grows- 
over it. This is called the Hymen ; and in ancient times 
its presence was considered necessary at marriage to esta- 
blish the virginity of the bride. f If in reality such proof 
was demanded, we think that very many brides must have 
been pronounced lewd, for there is scarcely one woman in 
a hundred at the present day who preserves her Hymen 
intact until she is twenty years old J In some, it is broken 
at the first menstrual flow — in others, any debilitating dis- 
ease of the parts destroys it — and many girls who con- 
stantly bathe and wash their private parts, unconsciously 
wash away this membrane. These are cases where it is 
very thin ; but where it has strength to resist such acci- 
dents, it may even then be quickly destroyed by any at- 
tempt of the female to produce sexual excitement. Some 
curious facts are related in the medical books of the tough- 
ness of the Hymen in certain cases. Dr. Vv^akley, of Lon- 
don, was applied to by a woman who alleged that though 
her husband regularly performed his marital duties, yet she 
herself could not enjoy the nuptial act. On examination, 
2 



18 BTOVTATiE GENERATIVE ORGANS. 

it was found that the Hymen had not been broken, though 
the woman had been married eight years The membrane 
was a tough, calloused substance, and it was deemed neces- 
sary to cut it out entirety. This lady became a mother in 
less than eleven months from the time of the operation. 
Dr. Bostwick, of New York, had a case where a thick 
piece of flesh grew over the mouth of the Vagina ; and 
though the woman had the menstrual flow regularly 
through a small opening, yet her husband could have no 
sexual pleasure with her. A very painful and dangerous 
operation relieved this lady, and she is now the mother of 
a family. As a general rule, a girl loses her Hymen before 
she is twenty, and it is seldom that she knows when it is 
destroyed. 

In some women the mouth of the Vagina is so small 
that a first connection is painful, tearing the part and 
causing a flow of blood. When such women become 
widows, or refrain from sexual intercourse for a long pe- 
riod, the same tearing and flow of blood may again occur 
on resuming connection. 

The external appearance of the private parts of a female, 
as given in the engraving, we will here particularize. The 
peculiar round and plump prominence at the lower ex- 
tremity of the abdomen, is a thick layer of nitty matter 
over the pubic bone, called the Mons Veneris. This is 
usually covered with hair at the age of puberty. In some 
cases the hair grows very profusely, and to the length of 
six or eight inches. Others have but little hair, and some 
none at all. The growth of hair is usually considered the 
sign of womanhood, though it is really no proof of that 
condition. Many girls have a growth of hair over the 
Mons at the age often or eleven years v while the menstrual 
flow will not commence until some years after. The two 
outer lips of the part are also covered with hair. These 
are called Labia, and inside they have little glans or folli- 
cles which discharge a mucus of a peculiar smell, which is 



THE CLITORIS. 19 

provided by Nature to keep the parts in health. Within 
these external lips or Labia, are smaller ones called the 
Nymphse. In infants the ISTymphoe can be plainly seen 
outside, as the Labia do not cover them ; but as the child 
grows, the external lips gradually close, and in a perfectly- 
formed female, at the age of puberty, nothing can be seen 
but the outer lips, which are, or should be, hidden by the 
hair. 

At the upper junction of the Nymphse is the Clitoris, a 
very curious formation which resembles a miniature male 
penis. This is an organ which, when irritated, causes sex- 
ual desires. It is usually about the size of a pea, though 
in some cases it is larger. The growth of the Clitoris to 
an unnatural size is what has given rise to a belief in the 
existence of hermaphrodites, or persons of double sex. I 
can easily understand how these reports originated. A fe- 
male infant with a Clitoris of a very large size would natu- 
rally induce such a belief by persons ignorant of physi- 
ology — for the Clitoris is always proportionably a great 
deal larger before puberty — and particularly so when the 
child is first born. In an unnatural growth, then, of this 
member, the private parts of an infant would certainly 
present a hermaphroditic appearance. It is almost unne- 
cessary to say that no such human beings ever existed as 
hermaphrodites. Those that have been so called were fe- 
males with an enlarged Clitoris. This enlargement being 
a source of some mortification to the girl as she grows to 
womanhood, it should be partially amputated, an operation 
which can be performed with perfect safety. Young girls 
of amorous desires get up a sexual excitement, and pro- 
duce masturbation, by rubbing the Clitoris ; and in board- 
ing schools they often practice the habit upon one anothei 
until they cause repeated Orgasms, and in this manner in- 
injure their health. Many of the diseases of after life may 
be traced to such unnatural pranks — particularly the weak- 
ness which causes miscarriage and excessive flooding. 



20 SEXUAL UNION. 

PHILOSOPHY OP SEXUAL DESIRES. 

The sexual organs of man and woman are wonderfully 
adapted to each other, and have a perfect power of mutual 
attraction. Nature sacrifices every thing to reproduction : 
it is thus that we enjoy all strength, vigor and beauty, so 
as to excite us to contribute to the procreation of our spe- 
cies ; and thus that such exquisite pleasure is associated 
with the copulative act It is for this reason also that we 
experience so many sweet illusions in the brilliant season 
of our amours, and that we give way to others when our 
reproductive powers have failed. In a word, Nature always 
regards the species, and never the individual ; and whatever 
we may say or think of our superiority over inferior ani- 
mals, we cannot conceal from ourselves the fact that, like 
the brutes, we are influenced in our unions by the pleasure 
of sexual intercourse. /^~It is useless to deny that the ma- 
jority of marriages which are apparently based on the sen- 
timent called love, are nothing more than the result of an 
involuntary obedience to the imperious voice of our sexual 
organs. ~) A man admires the graceful figure, the voluptuous 
form, and the generaFferuale graces of a woman, and he at 
once desires to possess her person. This induces him to 
cultivate her acquaintance, and unless he finds something 
in her disposition positively disagreeable, ten to one he will 
offer her marriage. Who will deny that sexual desire was 
the moving cause of this connection ? A woman meets a 
man of fine figure, noble gait and manner, broad chest, 
and elevated head, furnished with a luxuriant growth of 
hair. His eyes are full of fire, and he is amiable, gallant 
and polite, r She at once feels a thrilling desire to become 
better acquainted with him.") What is that but a sexual 
yearning? Thus far, certainly, no sentimental collusion 
can have occurred between them. 

The philosophy of sexual desires has been frequently dis- 
cussed by learned men, and interesting experiments have 



MUTUAL ATTRACTION OF THE SEXES. 21 

been made to test whether the attraction of the two sexes 
was not precisely the same in human beings as in the minor 
animals. These tests proved that our animal natures are 
not directed altogether by the intellect. We see young 
persons of opposite sex mutually caress and embrace each 
other by some mysterious influence, even before they are 
of sufficient age to experience sexual desires. ( This mutual 
attraction is attributed by some people to Animal Magnet- 
ism — the male being the positive, and the female the nega- 
tive principle.^ We, however, believe it to be an instinctive 
sympathy ;f for experiments have been made which prove 
that the Generative Organs of either sex exercise a certain 
mysterious influence one upon the other. J A French physi- 
ological writer says that two vigorous young persons were 
put in a semi-insensible state by the use of certain drugs. 
Being stripped and their private parts placed slightly in 
contact, (their heads being fully covered,) this slight touch 
instantly excited the sexual feeling. This experiment is 
reported in detail, and we do not doubt that it was bona- 
ficle. The peculiar instinctive attraction in this case was 
so delicate that it acted almost like electricity to the male 
organ. Besides this instinctive attraction, the nervous sen- 
sibility is so constituted as to aid in the union of the sexes. 
In the present state of society, however, young people do 
not usually wait the slow process of Nature's teachings, 
but gain their knowledge by a precocious association or 
under the instruction of their seniors. The sexual impulse, 
under such circumstances, is forced and unnatural, and is 
frequently the parent of incurable disease. 

Coition, or sexual union, may be compared to a fit of 
epilepsy, or to an electrical shock. It entirely engages 
both the mind and the body ; we neither hear nor see, but 
the soul is entirely absorbed in the act. When a man is 
performing this act, if his thoughts wander, the product 
will be feeble, and if his wife become pregnant the off- 
spring will be inferior. This fact is applied to the offspring 



22 SEXUAL UNION. 

of great geniuses, who are supposed to be thinking of 
something else when they beget their children, and hence 
their descendants are often much below them in intellect. 
In further confirmation of this theory, history informs us 
that some of the greatest men the world ever saw were 
bastards — children begotten with vigor, and when the 
minds of the parents are supposed to have been absorbed 
in the one idea of a loving sexual embrace. Aristotle be- 
lieved that the causes of deformed children, of monstrosi- 
ties, and of all defective offspring, were in consequence of 
imperfect connections, or acts of generation when the 
minds of the parents were depressed by passion, anxiety, 
trouble, or any difficult or abstract matters. 

Persons of moderate and regular habits, with strong and 
sound constitutions, beget healthful infants; while those 
whose habits are excessively mental, generally produce 
feeble offspring, though their constitutions and general 
health may be good. 

Another cause of feeble children is the abuse of the func- 
tion of generation by too frequent intercourse. In such 
cases the semen is thin and watery, being too suddenly 
secreted. Harvey says that to produce vigorous offspring, 
the spermatic fluid ought to remain two or three days in 
its receptacles for its thinner parts to become absorbed, 
when more vitality will be imparted to it, and hence the 
more vigorous will be the offspring. 

It will be thus seen that the proper union of the sexes 
is at that moment when the mind and body are at rest, 
and when both parties are in a mood for mutual caresses. 
Certain moral and intellectual perceptions undoubtedly 
govern their feelings under such circumstances, and aid in 
producing that intense pleasurable feeling which a healthy 
and proper connection will always promote. 

As to the times when sexual union should be avoided, I 
would say that during five or six days after the monthly 
turn of the female commences, it is absolutely unhealthy 



WHEIn IT SiIOULD BE AVOIDED. 23 

to both. Married men of cleanly habits will religiously 
observe the Jewish law in this respect, and wait seven 
days. It was formerly thought that connection with a fe- 
male during the menstrual flow, was the origin of a cer- 
tain sexual disease called gonorrhoea ; but such is not the 
fact. Connection during that period is, however, unnatu- 
ral, hurtful, and often painful to the female, Neither 
should there be any intimacy of this kind when the female 
is troubled with fluor albus, or whites, as then there is dan- 
ger that the male may contract gonorrhoea. When a girl 
appoints her wedding day, she should reckon as near as 
possible a time when she will be fully over her monthly 
turn. If subject to fluor albus, she should first seek the 
most efficient means of cure ; and if possible, a cure should 
be effected before she marries. Girls subject to this com- 
plaint seldom enjoy the constant sexual intercourse inci- 
dent to married life. Medical science can manage this dis- 
ease so easily and effectually by the aid of the Truss, or 
Abdominal Supporter, that there is no excuse for neglect- 
ing it. Unless the strictest cleanliness is practiced by the 
wife while she has the whites, she may give her hus^nd 
the disease called gonorrhoea. She should never have any 
connection with him in the morning until she has risen 
and washed the part thoroughly. Suspicious men have 
often believed their -wives unfaithful because they have 
contracted gonorrhoea from the whites. But the fact is 
well known to medical men that that alone is the original 
cause of the disease. 

In Persia, and indeed in most Mahomedan countries 
where a plurality of wives is allowed, it is considered inde- 
cent to approach a woman for sexual intercourse during 
pregnancy, or when she is suckling her child. This cus- 
tom is highly commendable, and if observed among Chris- 
tians it would tend to promote the health of both the mo- 
ther and her offspring, for Nature never intended that the 
nuptial act should be performed solely for the gratification 



24 IMPREGNATION. 

of our passions. Nevertheless, I do not say that a moderate 
indulgence during pregnancy would be hurtful to a robust 
woman ; though to a weak and nervous one it surely is- 
But after the child is born, sexual intercourse should cease 
until it is weaned, to insure its health. Many sucking chil- 
dren die in consequence of the sexual indulgences of their 
parents, and none are wholly unaffected thereby. 

TIME AND MANNER OF IMPREGNATION. 

We have stated elsewhere that there are certain times 
during the month when it is impossible for a woman to be 
impregnated by sexual connection. This is a fact that may 
be relied upon with the utmost certainty, and we will dis- 
cuss it more in detail. The Vesicles of the Ovary are con- 
stantly growing and ripening, as we have shown. Once in 
four weeks one or more of them is ready to leave its cell. 
Inflammation commences — which is called the Menstrual 
Flow — the Vesicle then begins to enlarge, and by the time 
the flow ceases, it bursts open, when the Ovum or Egg 
within escapes and is taken up by some very curious little 
membranes and drawn into the Fallopian Tube. It passes 
through this tube into the Womb, and it is generally two 
days, and often longer, in making the passage. Meantime 
a thin, delicate membrane, called the Decidua, forms in the 
Womb, and is ready to receive the Egg and detain it there, 
otherwise it would pass out and be lost. This membrane 
will generally last about a week, when it gradually loosens 
and passes out, taking the Egg along with it. If, however, 
the Egg be impregnated — in other words, if the female 
have connection with a man, and the Semen comes in con- 
tact with the Egg during this period, the Decidua from that 
moment begins to grow fast to the Womb, and becomes 
one of the coverings that protect the new being during the 
foetal state. 

It will thus be understood that during the first twenty- 
four hours after the Menstrual Flow has ceasecl, there is 



WHEN IT CANNOT TAKE TLACE. 25 

very little danger of impregnation, and in some females 
this time might be extended to two or three days with 
safety. The Zoospermes of the Semen will live for twenty- 
four hours within the Womb, and it is possible for the Egg 
to be impregnated by them the moment it leaves the Fal- 
lopian Tube. We therefore state the probable time that 
impregnation cannot take place to be twenty-four hours, 
allowing the second twenty-four hours for the possibility 
of there being living Semen in the Womb. After the De- 
cidua and Egg have passed out of the Womb, which is 
from ten to sixteen days after the Menstrual Flow has 
ceased, impregnation, or conception, is then utterly impos- 
sible until after another monthly turn is over, and so on. 
French women are famous for a clear understanding of all 
the phenomena attending impregnation, and they generally 
avoid it at pleasure. They know exactly when the Decidua 
and Egg leaves them — they watch for it, and it is said many 
of them search for it and take it away violently. At all 
events, there are multitudes of the class called grisettes — 
females who are content to live and cohabit with any 
decent man who offers them a support — who never get into 
the family way at all. Their secret is supposed to be a 
physiological knowledge, or art, which enables them to 
destroy the Decidua, or membrane which keeps the Egg 
from passing out of the Womb. We confess we cannot 
understand how so delicate an operation can be performed 
by a woman upon her own person ; but the thing is not 
impossible. 

Married people w r ho desire to avoid having children 
might generally attain their object by refraining from sex- 
ual intercourse for a week or ten days after the cessation 
of the Menstrual Flow ; or, they might follow the precau- 
tion recommended in our chapter on Prevention during 
that period. It is supposed that conception takes place 
within seven days after the monthly turn nineteen times 
out of twenty. But to be on the safe side, you should 



2C IMPREGNATION. 

wait longer — even to sixteen days — unless you can dis- 
cover when the Decidua and Egg pass off. There are cer- 
tain symptoms connected with this expulsion of the Egg 
which may be detected. A thin, colorless, watery fluid 
comes from the Vagina, and is often so abundant as to wet 
the external parts. This will continue for some hours, and 
will be followed by a grayish- white clot about the size of a 
pea. The discharge of this clot is frequently accompanied 
by slight pains and bearing down of the Womb. This is 
the Decidua and Egg. When a woman can discover, with 
certainty, the passage of this clot, she is then safe from 
impregnation until after her next monthly turn. 

The manner in which the Egg of the female is impreg- 
nated by the male Semen is curious and interesting. In 
its first state, while in the Ovary, there may be seen within 
it a little dot called the Germinal Vesicle. When the Egg 
is fully ripe, and just as it leaves the Ovary, this little dot 
is by some unknown process expelled, leaving an open 
passage to the very centre. The Egg is then ready for mv 
pregnation ; for, on passing into the Womb, if the male 
Semen come in contact with it, one of the animalculse in- 
stantly darts into this open passage and buries itself. All 
these curious operations of Nature have been discovered 
by the use of the Microscope, and they are not only very 
interesting, but are of great importance to mankind. 

It will be seen from these explanations of the principles 
of Impregnation, that a healthy woman may conceive un- 
der almost any circumstances — that the idea that a first and 
only connection would not impregnate is erroneous — that 
the most brutal violation may cause conception — in short, 
that if a female were rendered senseless by drugs, or by a 
blow upon the head, this would not prevent the impregna- 
tion of the Egg if the time were propitious. 

Sexual enjoyment of the female during connection may 
hasten the accomplishment of the desired end in various 
ways, but it is by no means necessary to impregnation or 



NYMPHOMANIA. 27 

conception. Indeed, there are many females of cold tem- 
perament who seldom experience any very pleasing sensa- 
tions during connection, and some who have no sexual 
desires at all. I knew a case in Hartford, Connecticut, 
many years ago, where a wealthy gentleman desired off- 
spring. He had lost his Penis when quite a young man ; 
but yet he was able, at times, to discharge Semen from the 
urinary passage. He was married after the loss of his pri- 
vate member, and lived with his wife — a very worthy wo- 
man — ten years, never dreaming that he could ever be- 
come a father. One day a physician banteringly told him 
of a similar case in Vienna, where the man had actually 
become a father by the use of a small glass syringe, with 
which he injected his Semen into the Vagina. It was a 
singular coincidence that this Hartford gentleman after- 
wards became the father of two interesting little ones. He 
had doubtless used the Syringe ! 

There is a class of amorous women who cannot be im- 
pregnated at all. They are afflicted with a sort of disease 
called Nymphomania, or insatiable passion for venery. 
Such cases are rare, but still they occur. A young lady 
patient of mine, in describing this disease, said that she 
had the most irresistible disposition to lasciviousness ima- 
ginable ; that when alone she could not desist from rub- 
bing the parts until she became exhausted and sunk down 
in perspiration: she slept well, but as soon as she was 
awake the same propensity recurred. Another lady (mar- 
ried) who consulted me, said she had always been brought 
up virtuously, and had hitherto been well disposed; but 
now a man could scarcely pass her without her experi- 
encing those sensations which were alone her husband's 
right. 

Nymphomania is attended with obscenity, restlessness, 
and delirium. The patients delight to talk obscenely, and 
solicit men to satisfy their desires, both by words and ges- 
tures. It is generally caused by masturbation, or undue 



28 sexual formations; 

irritation of the private parts when very young ; and the 
usual treatment is to keep them well syringed out with 
castile soap and water, and wear a bag of powdered cam- 
phor on the back of the neck. Camphor taken internally 
is also good. A very little camphor introduced into the 
water with which you wash the part will likewise act 
favorably. 

Young females troubled with Nymphomania, who there- 
by bring themselves into disgrace, are more to be pitied 
than despised : for it requires a great degree of moral firm- 
ness for them to resist both the promptings of Nature and 
those of licentious men at the same moment. Parents and 
guardians should act accordingly. 

CAUSES WHICH DETERMINE THE SEX OF A CHILD. 

Physiologists have given many absurd ideas on this 
subject, and almost all their theories have been exploded. 
In olden time it was believed that male children came 
from the right ovary of the mother, while females came 
from the left. Hence it was asserted that on whichever 
side she lay after connection, the ovary on that side would 
be impregnated. This plan of producing girls or boys at 
pleasure did not work, and was discarded even before the 
present minute knowledge of the principles of generation 
became known. The sex of an infant is not necessarily 
determined at its conception. In their unformed state, the 
Testes are within the body in about the same position as 
the Ovaries, and are similar to them in appearance. It is 
therefore possible that certain causes may influence the sex 
of the Foetus after it has commenced its growth. As a 
general rule, however, the sex of a child is influenced by 
circumstances at the moment of conception. Both experi- 
ment and observation have shown that the most ardent 
and vigorous individual of the couple, whether it be the 
man or the woman, will cause the sex of the child. On 
the other hand, where both are nearly alike in this respect, 



HOW DETERMINED. 29 

other influences must govern, and hence some couples have 
children of both sexes. The relative ages of married peo- 
ple frequently has an influence, because, when both are 
young, the oldest of the two is usually the most vigorous, 
and hence, as before stated, sex follows the predominating 
parent. Some physicians lay it down as a rule, that an 
elderly or middle-aged man will be sure to get boys from a 
young woman, and vice versa. But the rule does not work 
in every case. There is such a difference of sexual desires 
in different people, that it is impossible for any one, except 
perhaps themselves, to judge which has the most robust 
sexual powers. Another cause of sex is supposed to be 
the relative amorousness of the couple after impregnation 
has taken place. Some women experience much pleasure 
in sexual connection until they become enciente, and then 
all their desires suddenly cease. In cases like this, where 
the connection is continued, the husband would be apt to 
influence the sex after conception, and then the offspring 
would be male. But should circumstances prevent their 
continued connection, she would, in nine cases out of ten, 
give birth to a female child. To sum up, amorous females 
generally breed female children, while those of a colder 
temperament breed boys. When both are moderate in 
their desires, children of botli sexes are produced. When 
the female is unnaturally amorous, (and such cases fre- 
quently occur,) she seldom becomes impregnated at all. 
The following mode of influencing the sex of the child, 
some physiologists assert, is really effective, and it looks 
reasonable. When the woman is just over her monthly 
turn — say within two or three days — the husband may 
then try for a girl. After one or two connections, let him 
abstain for the next month or two, or even longer. He 
thus impregnates his wife at the moment of her greatest 
sexual vigor, and by abstinence he does not influence 
the sex of the child after conception. Should he desire 
a boy, let him keep up his connection for two weeks 



30 RESEMBLANCE OF CHILDREN TO PARENTS. 

or more after his wife has got over her monthly turn, at 
the same time carefully practicing the precaution of with- 
drawal, described in other pages under the head " Modes 
of Preventing Conception." At that period the wife will 
have partially exhausted her amative powers, when he 
can be almost certain that a boy will be the result of her 
impregnation. 

A curious fact relative to the resemblance of children to 
their parents has been developed by observation. Where 
a man is absent from his wife during the period of gesta- 
tion, the child is almost sure to resemble the mother. On 
the other hand, an amorous father, who keeps a constant 
connection with his wife during pregnancy, will cause the 
child to resemble him. If a woman should become preg- 
nant by one man, and then cohabit constantly with another 
during her pregnancy, the child would bear a resemblance 
to the second man rather than to its father. This would 
surely be the case if she were fond of the hitter's caresses. 

It often happens that a married couple will have " a run" 
of children of one sex, and then turn round and breed 
those of the opposite sex. This may be accounted for by 
the failing health, and consequent vigor, of the predomi- 
nating parent. Thus if a woman begins to breed boys, 
and after having had several, turns round and breeds a 
number of girls, it is a pretty sure sign that the sexual 
vigor of her husband is on the wane, or that his bodily 
health is failing. Should girls come first in rotation, and 
boys afterwards, the mother's generative vigor may be sus- 
pected of falling off. These are, however, mere suggestive 
ideas ; though readers may understand from them the prin- 
ciple upon which Nature forms the two sexes. I have no 
doubt that a careful and practical study of the subject 
may sometimes enable parents to elect the sex of their off- 
spring, on the principle we have explained ; but there are 
so many curious phases in the phenomena of procreation, 
that any certainty on the subject is out of the question. 



FCETAL FORMATION. 31 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE F03TUS. 

The escape or expulsion of the Germinal Yesicle from 
the Ovum, or Egg, leaves, as we have already explained, a 
passage to its very centre, thus enabling the Zoospermes, or 
male animalculse, to enter. If both are perfect and healthy, 
impregnation is then complete. The first change that now 
takes place is observed in the Yitellus, or yellow of the Egg, 
which at once forms itself into a mass of little globules ; 
and it is a singular fact that these are always a fixed even 
number, generally beginning with four or six, and so mul- 
tiplying or doubling — always, however, keeping the num- 
ber even. If by chance they should end their self-arrange- 
ment by an odd number, a perfect being could not be 
formed — the impregnation would end either in an abortion 
or an unnatural growth in the Womb. It generally takes 
two or three days for the globules to arrange themselves, 
and meantime the Zoosperme, or male principle, remains 
dormant. The globules soon begin to form themselves 
either into Testicles or Ovaries, as the sex may be, of 
the future being. At the same time myriads of smaller 
globules break off from them and spread all round the 
Zoosperme, which is soon entirely covered or coated with 
them. They now grow together and form the skin. The 
Zoosperme is supposed to be the head and spine, and the 
globules, which thus form the skin, shut out our view from 
observing any further formations. The Testicles, or Ova- 
ries, as the case may be, are now quite prominent, though 
we cannot yet determine the sex, even with the most pow- 
erful microscope, nor is there any form to the new being 
other than the original shape of the male animalcule. 

After the formation of the skin and procreative organs, 
as stated, the little being again shows signs of life, and 
struggles in its Egg until it frees itself from all the mem- 
branous substances which surround it, and. is enabled to 
turn round at its pleasure. Its movements are frequently 



32 PCBTAL FORMATION. 

rapid and lively, and they doubtless are necessary to the 
formations and changes which soon begin to take place. 
At the end of twelve days the Ovum is found to be en- 
larged to the size of a pea, and its whole organization may 
be seen with the naked eye. It is coated with two mem- 
branes, between which is a gelatinous substance, and the 
interior is filled with a fluid in which the foetus swims 
about at pleasure. On a close examination, the mouth 
and eyes can be seen about the fifteenth day. The eyes 
first appear on the side of the head, and, as the Foetus 
grows, they move round to their position. In ten days 
more we see the future being in form and size like a small 
ant. At the end of the first month it has increased to the 
size of a honey-bee, and the arms begin to grow — first ap- 
pearing like small warts on the body. The}' sprout straight 
out, and are then folded together on the breast. At this 
time the head is as large as all the rest of the body, and 
the features can be distinguished. The legs have not yet 
appeared, but the lower extremities are like a tail. At two 
months the legs and feet appear, the toes being united simi- 
lar to frogs 1 feet. During the tenth week the eyes show 
their lids, the mouth becomes more prominent, and the 
ears may be seen. The heart is now fully developed, but 
as yet contains no blood. The brain shows its form and 
substance. The next change brings red blood to the larger 
veins and to the heart, and at the end of three months the 
shape and form of the future being is nearly perfect, weigh- 
ing less than three ounces. The next process of Kature is 
the thickening of the skin, and so rapid now is the growth 
that within one month the Foetus fully doubles in weight. 
During the fourth month the bones begin to ossify, the 
uterus rises in the abdomen, and we are then enabled to 
determine the sex. This change is what is usually called 
quickening, and it corresponds with the time of breaking 
the shell in birds. At the end of the fifth month the fin- 
ger-nails appear, and fine silky hair begins to grow on the 




POSITION OF fHE CIIM.D AT NINE MONTHS. 



FOETAL FOOD DURING GESTATION. S3 

head. At seven months the being is generally perfect, the 
bones are firm and hard, and it weighs about three pounds. 
The intellectual faculties are not developed, however. The 
eighth and ninth months merely increase the size and 
strength of the child. 

Our Engravings show the relative sizes and position of a 
Foetus, as it lies in the Womb, at three several stages of 
gestation. They are original drawings from anatomical 
figures in wax in the New York Anatomical Museum. 

The child, previous to birth, never takes nutriment in 
by its mouth, for that is always firmly closed until after 
birth. Its food during gestation is probably derived from 
the blood of its mother through the umbilical cord, or 
navel-string, which likewise supplies its veins and arteries 
until the very hour of birth. An artery and two veins 
pass through this cord. There is sometimes an impedi- 
ment in the circulation of new-born infants, which is call- 
ed the blue disease, and for which there is no remedy. In 
these cases the body is of a leaden blue color, and the child 
appears sleepy and inanimate. Such children usually die 
before they are a year old, though sometimes they live four 
or five years. 

SEXUAL, INDULGENCE. 

Most men are of an amative disposition, and after the 
age of pubertj r have frequent desires to indulge in sexual 
intercourse. Some feel this desire so overpoweringly that 
everything else is forgone, all risks are run, and conse- 
quences madly braved, merely for the gratification of a 
momentary passion. Females, on the contrary, are seldom 
troubled with sexual desires ; and among those who risk 
their reputation and their social existence in the gratifica- 
tion of illicit love, few are prompted to the act by the ama- 
tive feeling. It is the idea that they are loved, and the 
wish to impart pleasure to the loved object, that overpow- 
ers their own judgment. When once a man has gained 
3 



34 SEXUAL INDULGENCE. 

the love of a true female heart, it lies in his power to use 
her person at will. Very few of the weaker sex can with- 
stand the promptings of disinterested affection;) but their 
sexual passions seldom lead them astray. 

In sexual union, the ecstatic point of enjoyment is term- 
ed in medical phrase the Orgasm, and in some men it is so 
intense that all consciousness ceases, and a perfect insensi- 
bility to everything around is produced for the moment' 
The Orgasm is usually followed by a state of dreamy lan- 
guor or exhaustion, which induces sleep. In women the 
Orgasm is not always experienced, and some females of 
cold temperament do not know what it is, though they are 
often excited, and feel a certain degree of pleasure. When 
it does occur in women, it is often even more intense than 
in the other sex, causing convulsive motions and involun- 
tary cries. It does not exhaust the system, as in the male, 
and the dreamy languor is more pleasing, and will often 
continue for an hour or more. It sometimes happens that 
a female of amative desires is never satisfied with one 
Orgasm, but craves frequent and repeated intercourse, as 
the indulgence does not exhaust her as it does her partner. 
Such a woman, unless she be possessed of great moral 
firmness, is apt either to injure the health of her husband, 
or to indulge in illicit love. Happily, cases like this are 
rare. The male can have but one perfect Orgasm at the 
same time, because he must secrete a new supply of Semen 
before another can take place. Men do frequently attempt 
the second, third, and even more frequent connections 
within a few hours, but the subsequent ones are spasmodic 
and hurtful. Those who value their health, and desire to 
enjoy true sexual pleasure, should never attempt these re- 
petitions, as they permanently injure the organs, and im- 
part to them an unnatural craving for frequent intercourse. 
Two or three days should occur between the periods of 
sexual indulgence to enable a man to enjoy it in full per- 
fection. The female Orgasm, not being produced by any 



ORGASMS OF THE FEMALE. 35 

secretion, maybe enjoyed without particular injury, though 
it is sometimes apt to affect the nerves. In most females it 
is very difficult to be produced — in others it will occur 
during sleep, and be entirely absent while in the act of coi- 
tion/ Orgasms in the female may therefore be experienced 
without the least licentious idea being entertained. This is 
sometimes the case with a class of women called u medi- 
ums" by the Spiritualists. The same temperaments are 
those which can be put in a mesmeric slumber. Women 
of great devotional feeling are generally of this class, 
though not always. Dr. Hollick tells us of a lady much 
addicted to mesmeric practices, who wrote to him her ex- 
perience. She confessed that whenever she was capable 
of being acted upon, mesmerically, the mesmeric state was 
always preceded by sexual excitement — often amounting 
to a perfect Orgasm — and that if this feeling was not ex- 
perienced, she could never be mesmerized. Sometimes so 
many Orgasms would follow each other that she would 
become completely exhausted and faint away. According 
to her statement, the mesmeric sleep, or ecstasy, was no- 
thing but the dreamy languor following a sexual Orgasm. J 
There are some mysteries connected with these peculiari- 
ties of the female system which Science has thus far failed 
to discover ; but new facts come to light every day, and it 
is probable we may yet solve them. The sexual feeling in 
females is often curious and peculiar, and I have no doubt 
that the mind and imagination control it in some unex- 
plained manner. A case occurred in France where a fe- 
male enjoyed the feeling to excess with one man, while 
with others she could enjoy nothing, though these latter 
persons were quite as agreeable and pleasing to her. (This 
fact shows that there are persons of opposite sexes natu- 
rally adapted to each other, and where such people marry 
they are generally happy in the marriage states 
/" Sexual intercourse is no doubt beneficial to health in all 
fully developed persons, and in some females it is actually 



36 SEXUAL indulgence; 

necessary to preserve their lives.) It is a proper stimulant 
to the nervous system, and serves as a sort of safety-valve 
when the vital functions are too active. The statistics of 
the world show that married people are longer lived on the 
average than single ones, and it is quite certain that as a 
general rule they enjoy more perfect health. M. Pidoux, 
a French physician who had practiced extensively in the 
Nunneries, assures us that almost invariably the Nuns are 
afflicted with floodings, with an absence of their monthly 
turns, and with other uterine diseases, after they reach a 
certain age. 

The proper time for sexual indulgence is an important 
consideration, inasmuch as carelessness in this respect may 
tend to dyspepsia, indigestion, and other affections of the 
stomach. Persons who are predisposed to such diseases 
should never have sexual intercourse just before eating, 
nor very soon after a full meal. Its peculiar effect on the 
stomach is calculated to weaken digestion, particularly on 
the part of the male ; and many a miserable dyspeptic 
might trace his unhappiness to imprudent acts of sexual 
intercourse. From two to three hours after or before eat- 
ing a full meal, is the proper time for this business. Both 
the body and the mind should be calm and at perfect rest 
— no troubles or bickerings should disturb the perfect har- 
mony of the amorous pair — nor should the thoughts be 
allowed to stray away from the matter at issue. Tristram 
Shandy tells us that he owed the whole misfortunes of his 
life to an idle remark made by his mother at the very mo- 
ment of his conception ! 

A full enjoyment of sexual intercourse depends as much 
upon the proper time chosen, the condition of the parties, 
and their mutual sympathies, as upon the fact that they 
are really persons of the opposite sex. It should not be 
indulged in except when there is a natural desire and a 
vigorous impulse. It should be avoided whenever it tends 
to produce a depression of spirits, or the least debility. It 



HOW TO BE LIMITED. 37 

should never be indulged in during intoxication, or where 
the sexual' organs of either party are diseased or out of 
order. It ought to be entirely abstained from during six 
or seven days after the commencement of the female 
monthly turn, and for one month after child-birth. It 
would be better, for both mother and child, if no sexual 
intercourse was indulged in during the whole period of 
suckling her infant, but as that abstinence is not to be ex- 
pected from ordinary men, I advise as little connection as 
possible during that time. And should connection with a 
suckling mother prematurely bring on her menses, (as it 
sometimes does,) she must immediately wean her child. 

Female prostitutes never enjoy their sexual connections 
with strangers — they are mere passive instruments — while 
the male only relieves himself of a superabundance of Se- 
men. Too frequent intercourse is quite as unnatural; 
those who practice it rob themselves of more than half the 
pleasure they seek. A man in robust health who has re- 
frained from sexual pleasures, may, it is true, enjoy such 
intercourse once in twenty-four hours for several days to- 
gether; but he could not attain the full enjoyment from 
one female. He must then rest. I speak of the highest 
degree of sexual pleasures. Many newly married couples 
give no limit to their indulgences ; and it is to such that I 
say, you deny yourselves of the real pleasures of married 
life. A little philosophy, and some experiments on the 
hints given, would render the married state a state of more 
refined pleasures than it now presents to a large class of 
mankind. 

The particular food which is calculated to stimulate the 
sexual organs is shell-fish, or sea fish of any kind, and 
turtle, as these generally contain phosphorus. Among 
vegetables may be mentioned celery, parsnips, onions, pep- 
pers, asparagus, tomatoes, Lima beans, &c. Mushrooms 
and truffles are a stimulant, as is also mint, sage, penny- 
royal, thyme, and spices of all kinds, especially pepper and 



38 PREVENTING CONCEPTION 

nutmeg. Canvas-back Duck, in proper season, is of excel- 
lent stimulating qualities ; and for puddings, sago, tapioca 
and arrowroot. For drinks take porter and strong beer, 
wines, or coffee. Spirits are too exhilerating, and cause a 
reaction. 

HOW TO AVOID CHILD-GETTING. 

The effectual Prevention of Conception is a subject in 
which everybody is interested. No class of mankind in 
civilized life desires an unlimited number of offspring; 
yet Nature has made prevention a somewhat difficult task. 
Persons of energy and resolution can, however, fully ac- 
complish their object in this respect if they will but dis- 
card the notion that the delights of sexual intercourse are 
marred by the withdrawal of the male organ just before 
the discharge of Semen takes place. This plan injures 
neither party, nor does it really diminish the pleasurable 
sensations of the connection. • If you once form the habit 
of withdrawal, you will find it to be a far more desirable 
and satisfactory mode than it at first appears. I know 
that the plan is discouraged by many physicians, and has 
been pronounced a kind of Onanism on the part of the 
male ; but it is not so. If properly performed, the act of 
coition is as pleasurable, as healthy and as complete as it 
can be when the Semen is fully injected. The cleanliness 
of this practice is also a great desideratim, as females of 
any degree of refinement can understand. I would then 
suggest to married people the following rule: Always 
carry to bed a clean napkin, which is to be kept in the 
hand of the male during the nuptial act. It will then be 
a very easy matter to place this napkin in a proper posi- 
tion to receive the Semen on withdrawal, at the instant it 
would otherwise be injected into the body of the female. 
If you do it at the proper moment, no pleasure is lost to 
either party ; and habit will soon make } r ou expert in this 
respect. This is the most certain mode of preventing con- 



BY USE OF THE FEMALE SYRINGE. 39 

ception that can be adopted, but as it cannot be carried out 
except by the prompt action of the husband, other plans 
are sometimes necessary to give the wife confidence, and 
make her feel sure of success. These we wdl proceed to 
explain as minutely as possible. 

The judicious use of an ordinary female syringe, with 
cold water alone, or a weak solution of white vitriol or 
other stringent in cold water, immediately after coition, 
will in most cases prevent conception. The syringe must 
be a large one, if made of metal, and should be filled seve- 
ral times, and its contents injected as far up as possible. 
The India-rubber syringe has of late years nearly super- 
seded metal ones, and is beautifully adapted to the business 
of preventing conception. By the use of this article a fe- 
male may inject as much fluid as she pleases, through an 
elastic tube, quite as far up into her person as is necessary. 
The mixture should be prepared beforehand, and, with the 
syringe, kept by her bed-side, as success often depends upon 
promptness in using it. If used immediately, with a weak 
solution, as hereinafter stated, there is very little danger 
but that a woman may keep herself safe from child-bearing 
as long as she pleases. Solutions of Alum, Sulphate of 
Zinc, Chloride of Zinc, Sulphate of Iron, &c, will kill the 
animalculse of the Semen, if injected with sufficient force 
and profuseness. If the woman rises instantly and per- 
forms the duty, she will probably be successful. If solu- 
tions are used in preference to pure cold water, it is better 
to use water at last as a rinsing process. The use of the 
syringe, so far from injuring the female, keeps the part 
clean and healthy, and tends to promote general good 
health. In commencing this practice, you should first ac- 
custom yourself to the use of cold water by degrees. Use 
but little at first, and let it not be too cold. Increase the 
quantity and the coldness gradually, until at last the feel- 
ing will be refreshing and agreeable. India-rubber syringes 
can be purchased at almost any respectable drug-store in 



40 LOTIONS TO KILL TH£ ZOOSPKKMLS. 

New York, at from two to three dollars. We can furnish 
the best article to our customers for three dollars. It is an 
instrument that every family should keep in the house to 
be used in case of sickness, if for no other purpose. 

Either of the following lotions may be used, as we have 
explained, in preventing conception. Sulphate of Iron is 
the favorite article which our quack doctors recommend. 
They usually charge five dollars for an ounce paper of it, 
including directions for use; whereas the cost in New 
York, at a drug-store, is less than fifty cents a pound. 

Lotions. — 1. Dissolve half an ounce, or more, of pul- 
verized Alum in two quarts of rain-water. If you can get 
Sulphate of Zinc, put in that with the Alum, in equal quan- 
tities, say a quarter of an ounce each. 

2. Two drams (quarter of an ounce) Sulphate of Zinc 
in two quarts of soft water. Or, one-third of an ounce 
will perhaps do better, if used alone. 

3. Chloride of Zinc, (liquid,) half a fluid ounce to two 
quarts of water. You can buy an ounce phial full, and use 
half at a time, or a two or four ounce phial, and use in pro- 
portion. If you prefer to make the lotion stronger, it will 
do no harm. 

4. Take one and a half to two ounces Sulphate of Iron 
and mix it with two quarts of soft water. This is a mix- 
ture which any New York quack will charge you from 
three to five dollars for, and will pretend it is a great and 
wonderful secret. 

Another plan which the wife may adopt for the preven- 
tion of conception is as follows : Procure a fine sponge at 
a drug-store, and cut off a piece of it about the size of a 
walnut ; then make a fine silk string by twisting together 
some threads of sewing silk ; tie one end of the string to 
the piece of sponge ; wet the sponge in a weak solution of 
sulphate of iron, or of any of the solutions before mention- 
ed as fatal to the animalculae of the Semen. Before connec- 
tion, insert the piece of sponge far up into your person. 



COVERINGS FOR THE PENIS. 41 

You can place it entirely out of the way by the use of a 
smooth stick of the proper size and shape. The string 
will hang out, but will be no obstacle. After the act is 
over, you withdraw the sponge, and if you have a syringe, 
use that also. This method is pronounced by some phy- 
sicians to be a sure one, and the only objection to it is that 
it is apt to mar the pleasure experienced by the wife. 
Some of our quack doctors charge five dollars for this in- 
formation. It is true, they furnish a certain mysterious 
powder to make a mixture of in which to wet the sponge 
used ; but the powder is nothing more than sulphate of 
iron, or some astringent similar to those named by us. 

Coverings for the Penis, which are used in Europe to 
avoid contracting sexual diseases from prostitutes, must 
necessarily prevent conception. With one of these cover- 
ings (which are now made beautifully with a preparation 
of India-rubber) a man may be certain that he will never 
impregnate his wife. But the enjoyment of the nuptial 
act is not so complete as a naked Penis affords, hence the 
covering, or sheath, is not very popular. The cost of the 
best article is about three dollars a dozen. 

Some men tie up the scrotum to prevent a discharge 
of Semen, and thus hope to avoid impregnating the fe- 
male ; but this method is exceedingly hurtful, as it forces 
the discharge into the bladder, from whence it passes off 
with the urine. Such a practice will in a short time so de- 
range the procreative organs as to send all the Semen into 
the bladder as fast as it generates, and the effect on health 
will be a wasting away of vitality in the same manner as 
if the patient constantly practiced self-pollution. 

I have thus given the only safe methods of preventing 
conception that are known. The first one — the withdraw- 
al — is an art to be acquired by the husband. It is a plan 
which every person of good breeding should adopt for its 
cleanliness alone, if for no other reason. Once habituated 
to this precaution while enjoying the nuptial bed, you will 



42 PRECOCIOUS SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. 

wonder how rational beings can pursue a different course. 
It is indeed a refinement of social intercourse — a triumph 
of mind which thus controls even the laws and instincts 
of our nature ! 

EFFECTS OF TOO EARLY SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. 

One of the greatest evils to mankind is a too free sexual 
indulgence by young men and boys. It not only injures 
their vital powers, but affects their intellects. Parents 
should watch their boys to observe whether they are of 
amorous temperament. If they are found to be so, a pru- 
dent person can find means to persuade or prevent their 
indulgence of sexual passion. If a boy is allowed free and 
habitual intercourse with females before he has attained 
his growth, it will not only prevent the full development 
of his body, but also of his intellect. This is a well known 
fact in physiology ; and by this very means many youths, 
who would otherwise become distinguished, have settled 
down into mediocrity, with scarcely sufficient energy of 
character to earn a livelihood. In a certain family in one 
of the country towns on the Hudson River, three sons were 
born - The two oldest afterwards became distinguished 
men. It was a family that inherited naturally the fine 
talents of their father, combined with the extraordinary 
robust and nervous energy of the mother. It was impos- 
sible that such a couple could produce other than intel- 
lectual and vigorous offspring. The third son, up to the 
age of twelve or thirteen years, promised to be the flower 
of the family. His education was progressing favorably. 
He was the pride of his parents. Years rolled along, and 
it seemed as though the boy stood still at thirteen or four- 
teen. He was amiable, and learned his lessons well enough, 
but all the energy and fire of youth seemed to have van- 
ished. He did not care to join in the manly sports of his 
elder brothers, but in a listless and dreamy mood preferred 
to stay at home. His parenis began to have fears for his 



ITS EFFECTS UPON A BOY. 43 

health, though he did not complain. The father finally 
took him to New York, and consulted a physician of emi- 
nence. The doctor asked some questions relative to his 
habits, but the simple and candid answers of the lad did 
not lead to anything explaining the real cause of his mal- 
ady. At parting, the physician said to his father, that if 
the lad lived in New York, he should pronounce his case 
one of too early sexual indulgence, unless he practiced 
the silent vice of Onanism. u Are there no females in 
your neighborhood with whom the lad could by any possi- 
bility associate ?" inquired the doctor. u He never goes in 
company at all," was the reply. "What servants have 
you ?" " Two excellent girls who have been years in the 
family — the idea of an illicit association there is prepos- 
terous. n " His mother is positive that he does not practice 
the solitary habit ?" " Yes !" " Well, I can do nothing 
for him ; but yet I would like to see the boy again. With 
your permission I will run up to your place in a week or 
two." u We shall be happy to see you." 

The doctor found out the secret of the boy's malady 
within twenty-four hours after his arrival. He had co- 
habited constantly with one of the maids from the age of 
twelve and a half years until he was sixteen ! The lad 
was saved only because of his youth. He partially out- 
grew this severe shock to his nervous system ; but yet 
never fully developed the intellectual powers with which 
Nature had endowed him. Young men who marry too 
soon are in the same category. There is not one in a do- 
zen who is fully developed even at twenty-one years of age. 

The case of the son of Napoleon I., Emperor of the 
French, was similar to that above related. At the age of 
fifteen or sixteen he began his career of sexual indulgence, 
which ended his life at the early age of twenty-one years. 
He, too, was an amiable, inoffensive and studious youth — 
beloved by his grandfather and by the whole Austrian 
Court ; and though the son of the most enargetic man that 



44 SEXUAL ABUSE, 

modern times lias produced, yet, from his quiet and effemi- 
nate life, lie scarcely attracted the least public attention. 

The present Sultan of Turkey is a living evidence of the 
effects of too early indulgence in sexual intercourse. He 
is the son of a brave and vigorous soldier, and with proper 
culture would doubtless have become a great and good 
man. Abdul Medjid has been over twenty years on the 
Turkish throne, and has hihterto impressed those who 
came in contact with him simply as a weak and indolent 
young man, with good intentions, but with neither nerve 
nor energy to carry them out. It was generally believed, 
and with good reason, that in his case, as in that of so 
many others of his race, the sensual indulgence begun in 
his boyhood had destroyed every trace of masculine deci- 
sion. No one who watched his dreamy, listless expression, 
and saw his relaxed muscles, and lolling attitude as he 
rode on horseback through the streets, could help feeling 
that he reigned rather in virtue of foreign support than of 
his own abiltiy to command obedience. 

results of sexual abuses. 

It was not our intention in this work to speak of Onan- 
ism and Masturbation. These unnatural practices are so 
generally known to be destructive to the sexual powers, 
and of health, that young people scarcely need advice on 
the subject. But it may be interesting to know the results 
of such practices, and of the abuse of the sexual organs 
by over indulgence. Some constitutions experience a sort 
of consumption which arises from the dorsal portion of 
the spinal marrow. No fever accompanies it, the appetite 
continues good, but the patient gradually wastes away. 
Women thus affected describe a crawling sensation down 
the spine. Men lose their seminal fluid in their urine, 
having a ringing in the ears, a weakness of vision, near- 
sightedness, and their intellectual capacities are weakened 
and confused. In short, the whole nervous system is gen- 




\ 




FCETUS AT SIX MONTHS. 



AND WHAT IT LEADS TO. 45 

erally prostrated. Excess of venery is likewise the first 
exciting cause of many painful diseases, such as rheuma- 
tism, neuralgia, epilepsy, convulsions, &c. Young married 
people are apt to indulge too much in sexual intercourse, 
and many a man lives a life of misery from ill health ori- 
ginated in this manner. Women are not affected so much 
by over indulgence as by Masturbation. Delicacy not al- 
lowing an ardent woman to tell her husband of her needs, 
she is apt to relieve herself hy this unnatural practice. 
There are, however, but few women who crave sexual in- 
tercourse. The excess is generally on the part of the man. 
Moderation in sexual pleasures is the key to health in a 
great many cases where the patient is hopelessly lamenting 
his sad fate. Sometimes a man will indulge to excess with- 
out experiencing much inconvenience, when suddenly a fit 
of palsy or epilepsy prostrates him, and leaves him a hope- 
less invalid for life. I remember an interesting case in 
point. A man of robust health and strong sexual powers, 
married at the age of nineteen. From that time until the 
age of forty-five, he lived temperately, was regular in his 
habits, and never knew a day of sickness. He had always 
the reputation of being fond of a variety of women — 
indeed, this seemed to be the one passion of his life, for he 
dissipated a handsome property in settling crim. con. suits, 
and paying for bastard children. As he advanced in years 
his passion seemed to increase, and it was saicl that he sup- 
ported five different mistresses at the time of the occur- 
rence of the event I am now about to relate. One day 
when he was writing a letter, he felt a peculiar twitching 
of the forefinger with which he held his pen. This twitch- 
ing sensation increased so much that he called on me for 
advice. I replied, " Let the women alone, for that is a 
symptom of palsy." Within two days thereafter he was 
struck down and lost the use of his hands, his right arm, 
and partially of his right side. Ten years have passed, 
and this man, who had previously enjoyed excellent health, 



46 UNNATURAL POSITIONS 

is still as helpless as on the first clay of his misfortune. He 
has consulted distinguished physicians — American, French 
and German — but there is no help for him. All agree that 
relief is impossible, but that he may live for many years 
an imbecile, palsied man. 

To sum up : If you wish to maintain your intellectual 
faculties intact — to enjoy good health — to be cheerful in 
the decline of life — to keep your strength, your imagina- 
tion, your memory, and your eye-sight unimpaired, refrain 
from too frequent intercourse with women. Once a week 
is quite often enough for this indulgence, and more than 
twice a week is positively hurtful. Some men may sneer 
at this advice, perhaps ; but to such we say, look back upon 
your life. Are you as perfect, both physically and intel- 
lectually, as you would have been had you curbed your 
sexual desires? 

POSITION DURING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. 

There is one phase of sexual matters that physiological 
writers seldom allude to, but which should be understood 
by married people, viz. : the position of their bodies during 
the nuptial act. Any unnatural performance of this act 
is apt to impair the health of the female, and many women 
have been seriously injured and rendered miserable for life 
by the beastliness of their husbands in this respect. Un- 
natural positions will cause derangements and bearing 
down of the womb, produce fluor albus, or whites, and 
sometimes will originate tumors and fungi in the private 
parts. A woman of delicate mould and constitution might 
be fatally injured in this manner; and no female, however 
robust, can enjoy sexual intercourse except in the position 
intended by Nature. For a full and perfect enjoyment of 
sexual pleasures, there must be first a mutual fondness or 
sentimental feeling, called love. Where this does not exist, 
the married pair should, in their associations, endeavor to 
be in as good humor as possible, and to tolerate each other's 



IX SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. 47 

caresses with the hope that love may grow between them. 
Marriages have occurred where the bride felt an antipathy 
almost amounting to disgust towards the embraces of her 
husband, but afterwards, on a ciose intimacy and free ac- 
quaintance, became not only reconciled, but really fond of 
him. Delicacy and watchfulness on the part of the hus- 
band will often enable him to make himself agreeable to a 
woman who at first has no sympathy with him whatever. 
From the peculiar organization of females, there are times 
when a husband's caresses may be unpleasant and irksome 
even to a loving wife : if he is reasonable and conscien- 
cious, he will not fail to observe this, and will abstain from 
intruding on her privicy on such occasions. 

A man who will force his caresses upon his wife can be 
ranked only with " the brutes that perish. 1 ' Of this class 
also are those who u go in unto their wives" after the 
manner of brutes. The natural position to which we have 
alluded suggests itself to every married pair w T ho possess 
the most remote particle of love for each other. But to 
make it unmistakable, we would say, that the female 
should lie upon her back, with her legs straight down — or 
if the legs are raised, they should be but slightly elevated. 
All other positions are unnatural and unhealthy. I could 
illustrate this fact by several cases in point, but the details 
are too disgusting. Suffice it then to say, that I have 
known females suffering from painful diseases caused by 
sexual connection in a standing position — in a position 
where their partners approached them from behind, and 
also in one case where the woman was forced or persuaded 
to lie on her back with her knees up against her chest. 
No female can desire such intercourse as this, because she 
cannot enjoy it. It is therefore the libidinous antics of her 
companion that compels her to it. Very few men of decent 
breeding require the caution I have here given, but if there 
be half-a-dozen who profit by it, I shall be compensated for 
thus alluding to a delicate subject. 



48 INTELLECTUAL CAPACITIES. 

DISPOSITION AND INTELLECT — HOW FORMED. 

It is wisely ordered by Nature that genius, and a high 
order of intellect, shall not, as a general rule, descend to 
children. If mankind could impart to offspring an intel- 
lectual superiority, we should probably have too many 
geniuses in the world, and too few workers. The animal 
propensities, the peculiar disposition, the various passions, 
the form, features, &c. — these, and other peculiarities of 
parents are always transmitted to their children ; but that 
lofty, soul-inspiring sentimentality which enlarges the rea- 
soning faculties and bestows mental distinction upon its re- 
cipients, seems to be a peculiar gift from the Deity itself. 

Some physiologists assert that Nature does not endow 
the children of distinguished men so bountifully as those 
of less exalted capacities, and assign as a reason that great 
minds have their weaknesses and their follies, which are 
apt to show themselves in a marked manner at the mo- 
ment they are begetting their children. I do not endorse 
this doctrine, but suspect that men are beholden rather to 
their mothers than to their paternal parents for whatever 
intellectual gifts God, in his wisdom, has bestowed upon 
them. A healthy, well developed, and naturally intelli- 
gent woman will have smart and intellectual children, even 
though her husband may be a ninny. If you want intelli- 
gent children, then, look you out a wife who has a soul 
above street yarn and love stories. But should you select 
the best woman from a thousand, you will scarcely find in 
her a wife capable of breeding you a very moderate genius. 
It is thought by some people that the state of the intellect at 
the moment of the nuptial act marks the mind of the child. 
I do not believe this ; for if a crop of geniuses could be 
raised by minds specially tutored for the occasion, who 
doubts but that the world would be full of them ? 

In looking for a mother for his children, a man should 
seek a woman of different temperament from himself. If 



THE TEMPERAMENTS. 49 

"he is lymphatic and good naturcd, let him find a wife who 
is nervous and irritable ; and vice versa. If he he of a sandy 
complexion, or fair-haired, with blue eyes, let him choose 
one of those luscious brunettes, with flashing black eyes, 
and a resolution as firm as a rock. On the contrary, if he 
be dark complexioned, impatient and passionate, let him 
sacrifice and enslave a mild and blue-eyed blonde of the 
cold North. Choose you always a woman of intellect, 
and if with that, you have one of a temperament and com- 
plexion opposite to your own, your children will be distin- 
guished for something — they will not live a life of drudgery 
and dependence — and they may be geniuses. The selection 
of a conjugal partner is one of the most important events 
of life, in either man or woman. Too little attention is 
generally paid to it. 

THE TEMPERAMENTS — HOW DISTINGUISHED. 

In the course of this treatise we have alluded to the 
Temperaments of different individuals, and it may there- 
fore be interesting to describe them. A person of a Lym- 
phatic temperament has a languid, good-natured look, 
sleepy eyes, and the face is soft, round and full. A San- 
guine temperament is represented by an earnest, anxious 
countenance, large intelligent eyes, prominent nose, robust 
health, and a strong constitution. The Bilious tempera- 
ment usually presents a strong marked countenance, yel- 
low skin, bulging eyes, projecting lips, full muscular habit, 
and not very fleshy. Persons of Nervous temperament 
are usually (though not always) thin and spare : their fea- 
tures are firm set, lines of countenance harsh, constitution 
delicate, and intellectual qualities of the first order. 

Men of genius may be ranked as follows : Sanguine-ner- 
vous are usually great writers, divines, musicians, or artists. 
Sanguine-bilious, great generals, politicians, statesmen, in- 
ventors, business men, or distinguished in any calling re- 
quiring much energv and industry. Sanguine-lymphatic 
4 



50 THE TEMPERAMENTS ; 

are frequently persons of great talent, enterprise, and dis- 
tinction, and are generally long lived; but they seldom 
make any considerable display of their abilities, or become 
men of mark. 

Lazy, inefficient and irresolute people, are in most cases 
constitutionally so from a lack of sanguinity in their tem- 
peraments. Some men and women are so constituted that 
they never can rise above drudges in society ; for if they 
are industrious they have no confidence in- themselves 

THE NATURAL LAWS OF MARRIAGE. AND OF THE 
TEMPERAMENTS. 

It is well known that marriages between near relatives 
produce unhealthy and imperfect children, but the causes 
of such a result are not generally understood. Thes* 
causes extend far beyond the circle of a family, for it is 
quite as improper for two persons of the same tempera- 
ment to marry, as it would be for a brother and a sister. 
The laws of the Temperaments of the human family may 
be enumerated as follows : 

1st. When both parties to a marriage are constitutionally 
the same, there will probably be no children. 

2d. The vital elements are incompatible with each other, 
and if children are born to parents who are alike in this 
respect, they will probably be idiotic, or rachitic* 

3d. When parties who marry are nearly alike — if their 
temperaments differ only in part — they will have children 
who may live to adult age, but who will then probably die 
of tubercular phthisis (consumption). In illustration of 
this, I have known whole families of children to be taken 
off by consumption between the ages of twenty-two and 
twenty-seven years, where this disease had not previously 
existed in the families of the parents or their progenitors. 

4th. If the constitutions of a married couple assimilate 
to the extent of one-half, their children will be apt to die 

* Softening' and distortion of the bones. 



THEIK INFLUENCE ON OFFSPRING. 51 

before the first seven years. The diseases of such children 
are tubercles in the glands of the intestines, or in the mem- 
branes of the brain. 

5th. When persons many who are alike in tempera- 
ment, and whose constitutions materially differ, a majority 
of their children will be still-born, and none will probably 
live to be two years old. 

6 th. When one of the parties to a marriage is exclusively 
vital, and the other similar, but of a nervous and melan- 
choly turn, the children will generally be promising. 

7th. To produce smart and healthy children, one of the 
parties should be of sanguine-bilious temperament, with 
good vitality, and the other of a quiet, lymphatic turn. 

Scrofulous forms of disease result exclusively from mar- 
riages illustrated by the first five laws above given. More 
than half the children that die are those of constitutionally 
incompatible parents. People who live in health to a good 
old age, owe more to their parents giving them a sound 
constitution than to any efforts of their own to preserve 
health. So many diseases are traced by skillful physicians 
to improper marriages, that the study of Physiology, and 
of the human temperaments, seems to be as necessary to 
young people as the most common branches of education. 

Fortunately for the human race, marriages are oftener 
contracted from instinct than from motives of policy ; and 
individuals of opposite temperaments arc apt to experience 
that natural attraction towards each other that results in 
marriage. But marriages of interest are still occurring suf- 
ficiently frequent to fill our lunatic, idiot, and deaf-and-dumb 
asylums, and we are glad to notice that the subject is at- 
tracting attention, and that new laws are proposed to pre- 
vent the marriage of blood relatives. 

It is also proper to state that there should not be an ex- 
treme disproportion in stature between a married pair. A 
delicate^ slightly formed, small woman, whose pelvis is 
small, should not marry a large robust man. If she does, 



52 PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF MARRIAGE. 

her offspring will be too large for her to bring into the 
world without much suffering, and sometimes mutilation, 
and destruction of health. This is also the fate of many 
girls of small stature who become mothers at too early an 
age, and before the hip and other bones, which form the 
cavity through which the infant comes into the world, is 
sufficiently developed. 

Early marriages (if not too early) are better than late 
ones, for the natural state of mankind, after puberty, is a 
rational association of the two sexes. Woman was adorn- 
ed by Providence with her graces and charms to delight 
the opposite sex, and she possesses those graces in full per- 
fection only while she is young. At that period she is 
indued with power to give and to inherit a sort of terres- 
trial paradise, to multiply her species, and to become ma- 
tron, queen, and mother. Her early ripeness proves that 
it was the intention of Providence that mankind, while 
young, should settle in matrimony, and exercise those gifts 
which reproduce their equals. In many young people the 
marriage state, when properly enjoyed, augments the en- 
ergies of the sanguineous system ; the distended arteries 
carry warmth and animation through the body ; the mus- 
cles become vigorous ; the walk is more free ; the voice 
firmer — in short, both men and women by this means im- 
prove their health, strength and beauty, and assist the de- 
velopment of their intellectual faculties. 

ON THE INFLUENCE OF VITAL FORCE. 

The base of the brain is the source and foundation of 
motion, thinking, and feeling in the human body. The 
breadth of it indicates the vigor, and its depth the tenacity 
of life. Men generally have the base of the brain more 
developed than women, and as a consequence exhibit, in 
both body and mind, more of what is called force of cha- 
racter. A man whose brain is very full at the base, sel- 
dom, if ever, suffers from chronic forms of disease, and 



WANT OF VITAL FORCE. 53 

never dies from consumption, except in old age when the 
brain is decayed. His ailings will be confined to inflam- 
matory diseases, gout and rheumatism. Men of this class 
are never drudges. They are usually energetic, either for 
good or evil, and are more apt to be leaders of their fellow- 
men than otherwise. Vital force is as necessary to the pro- 
motion of health as pure blood. Those who are deficient 
of it sooner or later become afflicted with some functional 
form of disease. Intellectual men of this class usually 
pursue the profession of a minister, a physician or a col- 
lege professor, though they make very indifferent doctors 
or teachers. They do not possess sufficient force or energy 
of character to make their talents and worth appreciated 
by the multitude. The trustees of schools and colleges 
employ them without making any inquiries as to their 
ability to govern youth, and the consequence is frequent 
difficulties and fruitless disputes with their pupils. 

TENACITY OF LIFE AND LONGEVITY. 

The depth of the base of the brain is a true index of 
vital tenacity, or duration of life in any individual. This 
depth varies in different persons from less than a quarter 
of an inch up to an inch and a quarter. 45 " A full inch in 
an individual fifty years of age indicates a life of eighty or 
ninety years. One-half to five-eighths of an inch shows 
tha£ though the person may live many years, yet he has 
not the vital power to resist formidable assaults of disease. 
And those persons whose base of brain presents a depth 
of less than half an inch, must be exceedingly careful of 
their health, and may expect to die from the most trivial 
cause. On the contrary, those with three-fourths of an 
inch, and above it, will probably survive the most power- 

* Take a piece of twine and pass it from the outer corns r of each eye 
around the back of the head, letting: it touch the most projecting protu- 
berance on the hind part of the skull. The distance between this line 
and the ear-hole gives the depth alluded to. 



54 SYMPTOMS OF PREGNANCY, 

ful attacks of disease. The base of the brain, being the 
seat of vitality in all animals, the exact size of it shows 
the quantum of life possessed by any individual. Heredi- 
tary diseases may be excepted, in certain cases. 

HOW TO DETECT PREGNANCY. 

Almost every married woman considers the stoppage 
of her usual monthly turns a warning that she is in the 
family way ; and this will hold true in nine cases out of 
ten. Nevertheless, in some women the menses continue 
for a couple of months or more after impregnation takes 
place. So, also, there are many other causes for the sup- 
pression of the menses, and the failure of the monthly turn 
is not, therefore, conclusive evidence of impregnation. 
Other peculiarities may be noticed which will go to con- 
firm the fact, and one is an enlargement of the neck. Sin- 
gular as this may appear, it is true : and some married ladies 
keep the exact measure of their necks so as to be able to 
detect this sign. Pains similar to colic, fainting fits, shud- 
dering and creeping of the skin, longings for unusual food 
and drinks, loss of appetite, morning sickness, fretfulness 
and peevishness, hysteria, and a dozen other changes in 
the feelings, temper or desires of a woman, are strong pre- 
sumptive signs of conception. 

The breasts, being always in sympathy with the womb, 
usually begin to enlarge a little, the nipples become hard, 
and their color turns from the usual delicate pink to a 
chestnut brown, with little dots or pimples on the circle. 
This alteration in the nipple must be closely observed to 
indicate positive pregnancy, as it frequently becomes dark 
from other causes. The hue occasioned by conception is 
peculiar to itself, and is a sure indication that gestation has 
commenced. 

Soon after conception, in some females, the face and eye- 
lids will swell; and many girls are suspected from this 
cause alone by their more experienced sisters. Others 




PCETUS AT THIRTEEN WEEKS. 



AND PHENOMENA ATTENDING IT. 55 

are warned of their condition by flying pains, palpitations, 
&c, and by pains at the top of the head. If the urine be 
kept in a clean vessel for several days, and a white scum 
arises at the top, this is considered by some physicians as 
conclusive evidence of pregnancy. 

When a woman has become pregnant, the white line 
on the abdomen, extending from the navel to the pubis, 
becomes darker, and the navel itself swells out a little. 
The mucus membrane which lines the Vagina, which is 
usually of a delicate rose color, turns blue or purple. 

The above are the most prominent and conclusive evi- 
dences of conception during the first three months, though 
some of them may not be experienced until a later period. 
At the end of thirteen weeks the enlargement of the 
womb begins to develop itself so as to leave no doubt 
whatever of the interesting situation of the lady. In some 
cases even this enlargement is the result of other causes ; 
and should a doubt exist, an examination by a physician, 
or any experienced person who can feel the mouth of the 
womb with a finger, will determine the state of the case. 
The mouth closes and contracts together immediately after 
conception, and this condition of it can be easily detected 
if the finger be applied in the right place. If the mouth 
of the womb is not closed, then the enlargement is surely 
from other causes 

LABOR AND CHILD-BIRTH. 

A healthy and natural birth usually takes place after 
the fifteenth day of the ninth month of pregnancy. It may 
be delayed until the end of the month, but is seldom so 
protracted. Shortly before labor is to commence, the belly 
sinks, and the hitherto snug-fitting dress will become loose. 
This is caused by the descent of the*womb into the bottom 
of the belly. The motions and weight of the child are 
also felt to be lower than usual, and if in a natural posi- 
tion, the head will fall down to the orifice of the womb, 



56 LABOR AND CHILD - BIKTH ; 

and press upon it. This drives forward the membranes 
which restrain the water at the orifice, and at, the proper 
moment they break, and labor then commences. 

Labor is caused by involuntary contractions of the ute- 
rus and abdominal muscles. By their force the liquor 
amnii flows out, the head of the foetus is engaged in the 
pelvis, it goes through it, and soon passes out by the valve, 
the folds of which disappear. These different phenomena 
take place in succession, and continue a certain time : they 
are accompanied with pains more or less severe, with 
swelling and softening of the soft parts of the pelvis and 
external genital parts, and with an abundant mucous secre- 
tion in the cavity of the vagina. All these circumstances, 
each in its own way, favor the passage of the foetus. 

The precursory signs of labor are as follows : Two or 
three days before it is to commence, a flow of mucus takes 
place from the vagina, and the external genital parts swell 
and become softer : it is the same with the ligaments that 
unite the bones of the pelvis ; the mouth of the womb 
flattens, its opening is enlarged, its edges become thinner, 
and slight pains, known under the name of flying pains, 
are felt in the loins and abdomen. At the next stage pains 
begin to be felt in the lower part of the back, or lumbar 
region, and tend towards the womb, or the rectum : these 
occur at intervals of fifteen to thirty minutes, and each is 
accompanied with contraction of the womb, and tension 
of its neck, which begins to open. If a finger is now in- 
troduced into the vagina, a considerable tumor may be 
felt, which is a protrusion of the membrane coverings of 
the foetus, containing the first waters. The pains gradually 
become stronger up to the time when the membranes break, 
and labor actually begins. 

The uterus now contracts on itself, and is applied to the 
surface of the foetus. Soon the pains and contractions of 
the uterus increase considerably, and are accompanied by 
the contraction of the abdominal muscles. The woman 



THEIR PROGRESS AND MANAGEMENT. 57 

should favor this state of things by making all the muscu 
lar efforts in her power, (straining.) As the labor pro- 
gresses, her pulse will become stronger and more frequent ; 
her face becomes animated ; her eyes grow brighter ; her 
whole body is in extreme agitation ; perspiration flows in 
abundance ; until the head of the child descends into the 
lower strait of the pelvis. 

At this stage there is a discharge of whitish matter from 
the vagina, and pains occur which extend from the small 
of the back, or loins, and the groins, down towards the 
front, or private parts ; and sometimes the membranes will 
even protrude through the external opening. Presently a 
strong pain comes on, crack go the membranes, the liquor 
amnii gashes out with a rush, deluging the bed. After 
this there are longer intervals between the pains, and on 
the midwife's introducing her finger, she can feel the head 
of the child. As the pains increase in intensity, the pa- 
tient is apt to scream, though some women of firmness 
will suppress their feelings : she lays hold of a towel, 
which is commonly fastened to the becVpost for this pur- 
pose, and bears clown with all her might : her pulse now is 
rapid, and her skin is hot ; the process still goes bravely 
on ; the pains are now more frequent, stronger and lasting. 

The head of the child now gradually descends lower 
and lower in the vagina until it presses on the perinceum, 
or outer edge of the private part adjoining the anus. In 
this stage of the labor an inexperienced midwife would 
think that a few pains more would expel the child, but 
although the head rests upon the perinceum, and shows 
itself at the external orifice, yet it may be some hours be- 
fore it is expelled, more especially if it is a first child ; but 
if the second or third, half-a-dozen more pains will gene- 
rally be sufficient to complete the process. 

During this time the woman usually suffers some from 
head-ache, looks intensely red in the face, and often expe- 
riences a trembling of the lower limbs. 



58 MANAGEMENT AT CHILD-BIRTH, 

The outer passage will now begin to enlarge gradually, 
and the head appears. When it is advanced as for as its 
ears, it is said to be " in the passage." When the birth 
has advanced one-third, the midwife may assist the expul- 
sion if she chooses, though Nature alone would accomplish 
it. When the child is born, the midwife should lay it upon 
her knees, with its face down, so as to give exit to the 
mucus, waters, &c, from the mouth, if any has been im- 
bibed, which is most generally the case. 

Now that the child is born, there is a freedom from pain 
and the mother feels rejoiced at the sudden transition from 
severe suffering to comparative ease. In about ten minutes 
she again begins to experience pains, which are, however, 
slight, or less violent than before, in the region of the ute- 
rus, coming and going about every five minutes. On ex- 
amination, the accoucheuse will find a quantity of clotted 
blood expelled, and on passing up the finger along the 
cord, she will discover the after-birth, or placenta, as it is 
called, forced into the upper part of the vagina, If not 
attached to the womb, which is easily known by carefully 
pulling at the cord, the midwife will separate it gently, by 
introducing her hand. The navel-string must be divided 
as soon as the child is born ; which may be done with a 
pair of scissors, having first tied a string as well on the 
child's side of the cord as the mother's, to prevent hemor- 
rhage. The placenta being taken away, the labor is now 
over. 

An hour after, let the mother take a little oil'of sweet 
almonds, to ease the after pains ; and let a poultice of oil 
of sweet almonds, and two or three new-laid eggs, be boil- 
ed together, and laid to the parts, renewing at every six 
hours for two days. Fifteen clays after the birth, the parts 
may be bathed with an astringent decoction of red roses, 
alum, or nut-galls in reel wine, in order to brace them 
The following is the formula I usually employ : Red-rose- 
leaves, 1 ounce ; Alum, 2 drams ; Ordinary Claret, half a 



AND AFTER DELIVERY. 59 

pint. Put them into a sauce-pan and let them boil for five 
or ten minutes. After having stood for fifteen or twenty 
minutes to cool, strain, and apply warm to the parts. 

The above is a brief description of a healthy delivery ; 
and such are the usual ones. In some cases, however, the 
labor may be tedious and difficult, when the lower part of 
the belly must be covered with a flannel cloth dipped in a 
hot decoction of bitter herbs, as tanzy, hops, wormwood 
and catnep, of each a small handful, to which put three 
pints of equal parts vinegar and water ; boil for half an 
hour in a covered vessel. Wring the flannel out and apply 
warm over the region of the womb, which will relieve the 
tension and ease the pain, besides gently stimulating the 
uterus to contract more forcibly on its contents, whereby 
the labor is facilitated. 

Stimulating injections by the bowels, may now and then 
be administered — especially if the woman be at all costive. 
The midwife should also push back with her longest finger 
the os coxygis, which tends to excite the labor and ease 
the pain. If the parts are in a stiff, straitened condition, 
as in the first child, especially if the woman is not young, 
emollient liniments are to be used, and the parts must be 
anointed with fresh butter or oil, and to be dilated gently 
with the hand. If there is a tumor, carbuncle, or mem- 
brane opposing the birth, the assistance of an experienced 
surgeon is required. 

Always in difficult labors, the patient should be made as 
cheerful as possible by her friends, by the recital of lively 
and amusing anecdotes, and by every species of encourage- 
ment in their power ; as a depressed and melancholy state 
of mind invariably retards the labor. 

Women in labor, who have a languid circulation and a 
weak constitution, are benefited by cordials and good nour- 
ishment. Let half a glass of wine be given every two 
hours, which will invigorate the system, and render the 
action of the uterus more powerful. 



60 MANAGEMENT OF DIFFICULT BIRTHS. 

If the feet present first, the midwife must be very cau- 
tious lest there be twins, and lest she should take a foot of 
each. The feet must be wrapped in a dry napkin, and the 
child must be drawn gently, till the waist is in the orifice 
of the uterus. Then the infant's hands must be drawn 
down close to the sides ; and if the nose be turned towards 
the pubic bone in front, it should be placed in an opposite 
direction to prevent any obstacle. If the chin is embar- 
rassed, the midwife must disengage it, by putting her finger 
into the mouth, in order to turn to advantage. In case the 
infant's head presents across the passage, or laterally, it 
must be gently thrust back, and carefully turned to its 
natural situation. If the shoulder presents, the same tact 
and talent must be employed, although the difficulty is 
greater. If the belly, hip, or thigh appears first, the child 
must be extricated by gentle traction made at the feet, and 
the mother must lie flat on her back. If one or both hands 
are directed upward, above the head, and lie close to it, the 
case is not so bad as some would apprehend ; for they will 
keep the orifice equally dilated till the head passes, and 
thus prevent strangling. 

"When the foetus dies before the time of birth, and the 
membranes are not yet ruptured, it will not putrefy ; there- 
fore the work must be left to Nature, for the pains of labor 
will at length come on spontaneously. Baudelocque says, 
if the navel-cord first appears, and is compressed soon after 
by the head of the infant, its life is in danger ; and the 
remedy is to return the infant, and reduce the cord, till the 
head fills the opening. But if this cannot be done, the wo- 
man must be put in a suitable posture, and the child must 
be extracted by the feet. 

When the placenta first presents itself, which is known 
by its spongy, soft texture, and the great quantity of blood 
flowing at the same time, it requires speedy assistance. 
If the membranes are entire, they should be broken, the 
placenta and membranes should be returned into the 



IMPRUDENCES WHICH CAUSE ABORTION. 61 

uterus, and the child be extracted by the feet (which is 
more readily effected in the membranes than in the uterus), 
and put into a proper situation. When there is a great 
flow of blood from untoward accidents, the infant should 
be immediately delivered by art, though the mother be not 
in true labor. 

I would caution all how they use the instruments when 
the mouth of the womb is not fully opened, and never to 
resort to them unless actually compelled to do so by some 
serious danger which is to be apprehended from delay. 
Many cases of this kind do occur, it is true, in large cities, 
if one happens to have a large practice in this branch of 
the Healing Art 

ABORTIONS AND MISCARRIAGES. 

The anxiety of a woman who desires to avoid preg- 
nancy will often lead her to such dangerous extremes that 
she is ready to risk health, and even life itself, rather than 
become a mother. Hence she earnestly seeks the means 
to destroy her unborn child. When this is done so early 
that the fcetus cannot live, it is called an abortion. After 
the sixth or seventh month, it is a miscarriage. Abortions 
are always dangerous, though some females get over them 
without much suffering or harm. The most propitious 
periods for an abortion are at three, five, and six months. 
Both abortions and miscarriages are brought about by 
irregularities of conduct, such as too eager gratification of 
sexual desires, remaining too long in a warm bath, lacing 
the corsets too tight, violent exercise, such as dancing, 
riding a hard trotting horse, romping, joining long dis- 
tances, &c. Any of these imprudences will be apt to kill 
the foetus, which will soon thereafter be expelled from the 
womb. Women know the "moment the foetus dies, for it 
falls to the bottom of the abdomen and lies there a dead 
weight, feeling like a foreign substance in the body. 

Sudden and unexpected violence, such as falling down 



62 DRUGS THAT WILL CAUSE ABORTION. 

stairs, or being knocked down unexpectedly, will produce 
abortion or miscarriage, but as these mishaps would be a 
severe shock to the nervous system, they endanger the life 
of the mother. Any unnatural efforts to produce abortion, 
such as forcing the mouth of the womb, or taking power- 
ful medicines, are also t.c igcrous, as these may cause flood- 
ing that cannot be stopped. Bleeding too freely will bring 
on an abortion in some women, and on others will have 
no effect. 

Ergot of Rye is sometimes given by physicians to pro- 
duce abortion in V early stages of gestation. It is the 
diseased seeds of the common rye/ called grown rye. It 
acts specifically on the uterus, br womb, increasing its con- 
tractile energy. Ergot is not only a powerful promoter of 
abortions and miscarriages, but it is given to women as a 
stimulant to uterine action during labor, and also to check 
hemorrhage. The dose, in powder, is fifteen to twenty 
grains repeated every twenty minutes until the desired 
effect is produced, or until one dram is taken. Or, a dram 
of ergot may be infused in four fluid ounces of boiling wa- 
ter, and one-third taken as a dose, and the other two doses 
(if necessary) at intervals of twenty minutes. On some 
women it will produce not only abortion at three or five 
months, but even a miscarriage, particularly when the 
foetus is male. There is no doubt that many women can 
escape child-bearing by the use of ergot, but it would be 
better for any one to get it from her family physician, who 
would know something of her constitution, than to pay a 
hundred times its worth to a quack, and perhaps endanger 
life or health by taking more than is prudent, and at an 
improper time. Oil of Tansey is another article used to 
bring on the monthly turn, and in some cases it will stop 
the course of gestation if taken at the time the turn is due. 
Two or three drops only are necessary for a dose. In some 
women, a considerable dose will cause a miscarriage at 
three months. 



DRUGS THAT EXCITE THE SEXUAL ORGANS. 63 

Abortions arc sometimes produced under the direction 
of physicians by inserting a small hand up into the Yagina, 
and feeling for the mouth of the Womb with the finger. 
A little extract of Belladonna is used to promote the relax- 
ation of its mouth, and by the most gentle means possible 
the finger may force a passage, wh - flooding at once en- 
sues, and the fcetus will generally be expelled soon after. 
Women who submit to this operation run some risk of 
losing their lives, and hence a physician will seldom en- 
danger his reputation by advising it, except in extreme 
perilous cases. 

Abortions and Miscarriages being in collision with Na- 
ture's laws, should never be resorted to except in extreme 
cases, and then only under medical advice. 

APHRODISIACS, OR LOVE POWDERS. 

Many quack doctors advertise medicines to stimulate 
the procreative powers, and thus create a desire for sexual 
intercourse. These are sold at enormous prices, and are 
often useless, for the reason that the venders of them can- 
not know anything at all of their patients, and must fix 
the dose so as to suit the most delicate temperament for 
fear of injurious effects. The drugs used for this purpose 
are sold by every apothecary, and indeed at almost any 
country store. We will mention some of them : 

Cannabis Indica is the principal article used in making 
love powders. It acts powerfully on the nerves, excites 
the sexual organs, and increases their activity. The quan- 
tity to be taken differs with different persons — too large a 
dose producing extraordinary excitement and sexual de- 
sire, which is followed by corresponding prostration, both 
mental and physical. The proper use of this drug is not 
detrimental to health. 

Phosphorus is another article used in making prepara- 
tions to excite the sexual organs. It has a disagreeable 
smell, and must necessarily be disguised as much as pos- 



64 DRUGS THAT EXCITE THE SEXUAL ORGANS. 

sible. It is powerful in its effects, and has frequently been 
known to excite women so furiously as to make them dis- 
card all prudence and abandon themselves to licentious 
indulgence. Phosphorated Oil of Almonds, flavored with 
bergamot, can be introduced into almost any gelatinous 
substance to disguise the taste of the phosphorus. Dose, 
from five to ten drops of the oil. 

Ether will affect some females very curiously, making 
them amorous and imparting a strong desire to cohabit 
with their husbands. On some, again, it has no such effect 
at all. The dose of Nitrous Ether is from ten to forty 
drops ; or if you prefer Sweet Spirits of Nitre, take half a 
fluid dram up to twelve drams. 

Strong Coffee is a direct stimulant of the generative or- 
gans, and if taken in large quantities does not fail to pro- 
duce marked effects. 

Ergot of Rye is taken by some women to bring on their 
expected monthly turn when they fear they may have be- 
come pregnant. It acts as a stimulant and an invigorater 
of the sexual powers. Dose, in powder, fifteen to twenty 
grains. 

Saltpetre acts also as a stimulant to the sexual organs, 
and causes a desire to cohabit. It is taken in daily doses 
of five to ten grains, in the form of purified Nitrate of 
Potassa. 

Cantharides, or Spanish Flies, is a direct stimulant of the 
sexual feeling in some people. It is taken as a tincture, in 
doses of ten to twenty drops, and should be used with 
great caution. 

THE END.